Synonyms

Meridian:
Geographically: Connection between north and south pole, as a reference line to
Localization of places
In the acupuncture: chin .: jing-lo - System of orientation lines on which Acupuncture points lie

introduction

According to the theory of traditional chinese medicine (TCM) the different sections of the organism are connected by a network of channels, capillaries and guidelines, which in German Meridians to be named. The English name is better "Channels and collaterals"because it corresponds more to a literal translation. According to the Chinese view, the so-called flow in the meridians "Qi", which means something like life energy or force. In TCM, the meridian is not viewed as an isolated structure, but as part of a system that is classified in the so-called 5-element theory.

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One of the basic assumptions of TCM is that on these particular energy paths, the meridians, a total of 365 Acupuncture points are arranged. The points are connected to one or more organs or parts of the body and can therefore influence them. If disturbances occur at an acupuncture point, this also has an influence on the organ or the part of the body that is connected to this point. It has been proven that the skin resistance is reduced in the projection zones of disorders of internal organs (i.e. at the acupuncture points). The cause are different swelling states of the skin. One distinguishes twelve main meridiansthat are mirror images on both sides of the body. Additional acupuncture points are added due to eight extra meridians and extra points.

The meridians and acupuncture points are closely related to the system of yin and yang: the inside of the body as well as the organs in which substances are stored (so-called “zang organs”) have a yin quality. The exterior of the body and the so-called hollow organs ("fu organs") have a Yang quality. Both qualities have to balance each other out: If a yin organ is sick, the function of its yang counterpart has to be throttled somewhat so that a balance can reign. This works with acupuncture, since each organ is assigned to a meridian and certain acupuncture points that can be addressed by acupuncture.
This idea of ​​a connection between the surface and internal organs seems very confused at first, as there is no comparable structure in the human body in the current anatomy (the way blood flows in the vessels, for example). However, investigations have provided interesting results: If, for example, iodine 125 is injected into various acupuncture points on the meridians, after some time there is a significantly higher storage in the respectively assigned organ - accordingly, an injection in Ma 36 (stomach meridian, point 36) showed one Storage in the stomach.
Conversely, studies on rabbit ears with peritonitis caused by administered turpentine also showed changes in skin resistance in the corresponding ear zones. Since each meridian is also assigned to a specific pulse point on the wrist, a pulse diagnosis can already provide information about which meridian and thus which organ is malfunctioning.

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Summary

The Meridians always close Yin / Yang pairs together. The Yang meridians, which are connected to the corresponding hollow organs, run on the outside of the extremities (arms and legs). The Yin meridians, which are connected to the corresponding storage organs, run on the inside of the extremities.
With the meridian partnership after the Up / down rule One speaks of corresponding meridians and means meridians that run on the arm and leg at an anatomically corresponding point. For example, the heart meridian runs on the inside of the arm.
The corresponding meridian should therefore run on the inside of the leg: it is the kidney meridian.
The Qi (life energy) circles the whole body three times in the meridians in one day. It always takes the following route:
from Rib cage to hand, of the hand to the head, from head to the foot and from foot to the Chest cavity.

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Meridians and partnerships

The following descriptions and explanations are intended to provide an overview of the topic and are only summaries. They are not intended for use or therapy. For more detailed information, we recommend reading in more depth.

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There is in the TCM 12 main meridians. They run in pairs on each side of the body, mirror-inverted left and right as longitudinal lines on the body. An organ is assigned to each meridian. The meridians with their common abbreviations are as follows:

  • stomach (Ma)
  • spleen (Wed)
  • Large intestine (Tue)
  • Small intestine (Dü)
  • heart (Hey)
  • liver (Le)
  • Gallbladder (Gb)
  • lung (Lu)
  • kidney (Ni)
  • bladder (Bl)
  • Pericardium (pe)
  • 3 fold heater or 3 heater (3E)

In Chinese medicine, the organs are divided into so-called pincer ("storage") organs (pericardium, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney) and fu ("hollow") organs (stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gall bladder, Bladder, 3-fold heater). In addition, a distinction is made between the respective meridians, as already mentioned, in Yin and Yang meridians. All storage organs are assigned to Yin meridians and there is a hollow organ for each Yang meridian. A natural element is now assigned to the various organs and their meridians. In the Chinese view, these are the 5 elements Earth, water, fire, wood and metal:

Earth: Stomach, spleen
Water: Kidney, bladder
Fire: Heart, pericardium, small intestine, 3-fold heater
Wood: Liver, gall bladder
Metal: Lungs, colon

The attentive reader realizes that every element is always one Forceps and a Fu organ (or a yin and a yang organ) was assigned. In order to complete the system now, the different meridians can still be traced according to their courses inside on the extremities (all Yin meridians; they are in front / ventral on the trunk) and outside on the extremities (all Yang meridians; on the trunk different course) according to the Yin / Yang polarity. The following table will hopefully bring some order to the ideas:

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Course on the trunk YIN / storage organs / course inside the extremities YANG / hollow organs / course on the outside of the extremities

Front lungs / spleen large intestine / stomach

Middle / side liver / pericardium 3 warmer / gall bladder

Back heart / kidney small intestine / bladder

The lung meridian (Lu)

It starts in 1. Space between the ribs below the collarbone, runs briefly upwards, then on the inside of the upper arm, where it runs as the foremost meridian through the bend of the elbow to the thumb. It is a yin meridian and consists of 11 points.
Indication in TCM: Complaints of the entire respiratory tract, skin and appendages and complaints in the meridians and in the chest.

The Colon Meridian (Tue)

Of the Colon meridian begins next to the corner of the nail on the thumb side of the index finger, pulls over the forearm and the outside of the elbow to the highest point of the shoulder. It continues to the head over the cheek, where it ends at the top of the nostril on the other side of the body. It is a yang meridian and consists of 20 points.
Use in TCM: Pain in the course of the meridians, entire ENT area, noseSinuses, skin complaints, migraine, a headache above all if it radiates into the skull, intestinal problems, eye problems.

The stomach meridian (Ma)

It begins at the end point of the large intestine meridian on the lateral nostril and rises to the surface at the lower edge of the eye. First, the superficial branch pulls over the cheek to the mouth and then rises again to the side forehead. The main branch pulls from Lower jaw along the lateral neck to the pit over the collarbone, then over the nipples; past the navel; along the front of the leg and ends on the outside of the 2nd toe. The stomach meridian is a yang meridian and has 45 points.
Use in TCM: Complaints in the course of the meridians and in the digestive function; psychologically balancing points.

The spleen meridian (Mi)

Of the spleen or, in summary, the spleen / pancreas meridian begins at the inner nail fold of the big toe, runs over the inner edge of the foot in front of the inner ankle, at the front laterally along the knee and thigh, then laterally over the groin and trunk to the 2nd intercostal space. It is a yin meridian and consists of 21 points.
Indication in TCM: Pain and swelling in the course of the meridians, digestive disorders, abdominal pain, Vomit, "Jaundice" (Jaundice), complaints in the pelvis, everything related to blood (menstruation, blood pressure), regulation of the fluid balance, Musculature, Connective tissue, weakness and general heaviness of the body.

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The heart meridian (He)

It starts from the heart and comes to the surface in the armpit. From there it runs on the rear inner arm through the elbow along the inner forearm to the palm of the hand and ends on the side of the little finger facing the ring finger at the corner of the nail. The heart meridian is a yin meridian and has 9 points.
Use in TCM: Complaints in the course of the meridians, as the "success organ heart" heart Circulation effective; above all but "heart" in the figurative sense, so soul, spirit and Cerebrum; therefore with diseases in central nervous system.

The small intestine meridian

This meridian comes to the surface on the little finger, runs over the edge of the hand to the wrist, over the rear forearm to the elbow and further over the rear upper arm in a zigzag fashion over the shoulder blade.Then he runs over the shoulder along the side of the neck and ends in front of the ear. The small intestine meridian is a Yang meridian and consists of 19 points.
Indications in TCM: all complaints in the meridian course (arm, cheek, tooth, ears), chest, nipples, mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes, antispasmodic, psyche, fever and complaints in the digestive system (nausea, constipation, diarrhea).

The bladder meridian (Bl)

Of the Bubble meridian starts at the inner corner of the eye and pulls up to the forehead over the back of the head to the neck. From the meridian point Bl 11 it divides into a middle and a side branch, both of which are parallel to the bottom Spine run away. The middle branch descends through the gluteal region and finally unites with the lateral bladder branch, which runs through the hollow of the knee along the lateral lower leg and the lateral edge of the foot to the outer nail fold of the little toe. The bubble meridian is a Yang meridian and contains 67 points.
Uses in TCM: Poison excretion and pain in the meridian course; above all at Back pain.

The kidney meridian (Ni)

This meridian begins its superficial course at the transition from the front to the middle third of the sole of the foot and runs around the middle ankle along the rear inner leg. Above the pubic bone, it is 0.5 cun (about 1.25 cm) to the side of the body midline and ends at the lower edge of the collarbone. The kidney meridian is a Yin meridian and consists of 27 points.
Indications in TCM: Discomfort in the course of the meridian (lower abdomen, small pelvis, chest - the kidney the function "inhalation" is assigned), disorders of the organs kidney and bladder, the water balance (edema, diarrhea, constipation, sweat regulation, urination), kidney is the basis of vitality, the genetically determined life force, sexuality, physical and mental activity; the kidney "rules" the bones and the marrow.

The pericardial meridian (Pe)

Of the Pericardial meridian begins its superficial course in the 4th space between the ribs on the side of the nipple and extends over the armpit and inner upper arm to the elbow. Between two tendons of the forearm, it runs over the forearm and ends in the center of the middle finger tip. The pericardial meridian is a Yin meridian and consists of 9 points.
Uses in TCM: "Outer protection of the heart", i.e. Protection for the heart and circulation, it supplies the heart as an organ (the heart meridian is responsible for the function of the heart in the figurative sense - soul and cerebral cortex), further complaints in the meridian course, complaints that are felt upwards (nausea, vomiting), CNS -Symptomatic (Convulsive states), Psychiatry (irritability), heat symptoms (febrile conditions, inflammation, malaria).

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The 3-fold heater meridian (3E)

It starts at the lateral nail fold of the ring finger and runs over the back of the hand between ulna and radius to the elbow and the rear upper arm. He forms that "Rear shoulder eye", runs over the neck over the temporal bone, circles the ear and ends at the side eyebrow. The meridian of the triple heater is a Yang meridian and consists of 23 points.
Uses in TCM: Discomfort in the meridian course (diseases of the ear, head, deafness, eye diseases, temporal headache, migraine, back shoulder area), flank pain, coordination of the function of breathing, digestion, urogenital; Weather and wind sensitivity.

The gallbladder meridian (Gb)

Of the Gallbladder meridian starts at the outer corner of the eye and zigzags over the head to the neck. The main branch runs over the collarbone over the lateral chest wall down to the hip region. It continues along the lateral outer leg and ends on the outside of the 4th toe. The gallbladder meridian is a Yang meridian and consists of 44 points.
Indications in TCM: Pain in the course of the meridian, biliary diseases, ear diseases, tinnitus, dizziness, Mood.

The liver meridian (Le)

This meridian begins at the lateral nail fold of the big toe and runs over the dorsum of the foot and inner lower leg to the knee joint. It runs over the inner thigh and over the pubic bone and ends in the 6th space between the ribs on an imaginary vertical line of the nipple. The liver meridian is a yin meridian and consists of 14 points.
Indications in TCM: Complaints in the meridian course, neuromotor function, depression, Eye problems, liver is considered to be a blood reservoir, is responsible for the smooth flow of the blood, therefore with "blood diseases" (menstruation, blood pressure).

Extraordinary meridians and extra points

In addition to the 12 main meridians, there are 8 extraordinary meridians. They form their own system and arise in the kidneys that store kidney essence jing. This kidney essence flows through the body via the extraordinary meridians. Except for "Conception vessel" (Ren Mai) and the "Handlebar vessel" (You may) the extraordinary meridians do not have their own points. They are not connected to any functional circuit and cannot be divided into yin or yang. Its function is to transport and control the essence. They serve as a reservoir for excess energy from the main meridians without participating in the regular cycle of "Qi" (life energy). However, they can take over and store excess energy from the main meridians in order to release it again when needed. The use of the extraordinary meridians is particularly effective for chronic pain and psychosomatic complaints. But: Too frequent needling of the extraordinary meridians can lead to States of exhaustion to lead! The extraordinary meridians are divided into 4 pairs, each of which together supply certain parts of the body with energy. A meridian is activated by needling the opening point (key point) and the coupling point.

The conception vessel ("Ren Mai" - abbreviation Ren)

The Ren Mai begins in the lower pelvis and runs superficially upwards along the front center line of the body and ends below the lower lip. It consists of 24 points. The opening point is Lu 7 (lung meridian point 7) and the coupling point Ni 6 (kidney meridian point 6).
The conception vessel is in contact with all yin meridians, is also called the "sea of ​​yin meridians" and is considered to be the balancing reservoir of the energy (Qi) of these meridians.

The handlebar vessel ("Du Mai" - abbreviation LG)

The Du Mai begins next to the anus and pulls the spine upwards over the tip of the tailbone. It runs across the center line of the head and ends on the inside of the upper lip. It consists of 28 points. The opening point is Dü 3 and the coupling point Bl 62.
The handlebar vessel will too "Sea of ​​Yang Meridians" called because it is related to all yang meridians. The Qi of all these meridians "rules". It is the carrier of hereditary energy and a kind of receptacle for the active (yang) energy. The main indications are illnesses caused by "wind and cold", fever, spinal column pain and mental disorders.

Tendinomuscular meridians

Tendinomuscular meridians have a flat, superficial course. They do not have their own points, but each follow the course of the main meridians. Painful points in the meridian course (so-called "Ashi points") are also among these meridians. The tendinomuscular meridians start at the 1st ancient point (see below) and end at the so-called union point. At the point of union, 3 yin or 3 yang meridians from a certain area of ​​the body come together. The tendinomuscular meridians are used to ward off bioclimatic influences.

Extra points

Extra points are those acupuncture points that lie outside the main meridians. Up to 1500 extra points are described in the literature. They are called differently in the literature.


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