introduction

Behavioral problems are extremely variable and just an umbrella term for a large number of different appearances. The causes are just as diverse as the abnormalities themselves.
For some, physical or mental illnesses can be identified as the trigger, others are genetic and for others no reasons can be found at all. It is assumed that behavioral problems have their origin in the interaction of many causative factors, which, however, are difficult to prove as such.

Read more about the topic here: Behavioral problems in children

Causes of behavioral problems in kindergarten

Most children have to fit into a different system for the first time in kindergarten than into their own family. Many get along well with it, quickly learn about the advantages of kindergarten, such as Community games, opportunities to play or special handicraft materials and quickly get used to the rules and conditions there.
Other children feel torn from their safe family context and perceive kindergarten as a potentially threatening place because they are separated from their parents for several hours. If they don't learn to get used to it within a few weeks, without spending time away from their parents, the children may suffer from fear of loss.

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Please also read the following article: Fear of loss in children.

Some children cannot cope with having to divide adult attention. This can particularly affect children who receive a lot of attention as an only child, or children who are overwhelmed by the number of people and the incoming stimuli of the kindergarten. As a result, these children often behave in a frightened, cranky, restless or even aggressive manner. At home, these behaviors are usually less pronounced, so that the parents cannot always understand what the educators tell them. Of course, there are also behavioral problems that occur not only in kindergarten but, for example, in every socially demanding situation. However, these are usually caused elsewhere.

You might also be interested in: Language disorder in children

Causes of behavioral problems at school

In school, the term behavioral abnormality is primarily understood to mean disruptive behavior, i.e. the children who show so-called hyperkinetic abnormalities and who loudly and inappropriately hinder lessons. Often there are also learning difficulties. Antisocial disorders and anxiety disorders are also behavioral problems, but are less obvious.

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You can find more information on the topic here: ADHD
Upon entering school age, the child has to adapt to the new role as a student and is confronted with high expectations and demands. Even more than in kindergarten, it has to concentrate and perform in school.For some children this pressure is too much and they defend themselves with typical childish behavior in order to rebel against the demands of school, or with social withdrawal in order to avoid the new situation. It is not uncommon for teachers to start stigmatizing the child either as a “troublemaker” or a “gray mouse”. Other children join in and incite disruptive students further and further marginalize anxious children. Breaking this circle and bringing the joy of learning closer to the child requires a lot of time, patience and skill on the part of the teachers, who are more than overwhelmed, especially in large classes.

Causes in puberty

In puberty, the young people face new problems, they have to find their way into the world of adults and experience a new conflict of roles. Fears and self-doubt are quite normal. The hyperkinetically disruptive, childish behavior is therefore far less common in adolescence than psychological or emotional problems. Many suffer from enormous psychological pressure, which can be reflected in abnormal behavior. At least 6% of all adolescents suffer from depression, at least temporarily, and suicides are the second most common cause of death in this age group. The exact causes of behavioral problems in adolescents are often difficult to determine, as most of them are a combination of family, social and other factors that burden the young person. They usually only become really noticeable when their subliminal fears and self-doubts turn into aggression against their fellow human beings. Often the young people simply lack orientation, the pressure to perform is too high and the future looks uncertain and threatening. Conspicuous behavior is therefore a logical consequence of this conflict.

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Genetic causes

The fact that genetic factors play a role in the development of behavioral disorders has not been proven, but it is very likely. Many families report that e.g. the father of a conspicuous child was also a “troublemaker” in the school and his father before him. Others speak of a certain "temperament" that is inherited in the family. There are no reliable studies on this yet.

In addition to the genes, upbringing could (co-) justify these familial accumulations. However, if you compare children who come from similar backgrounds and were raised similarly, some develop behavioral problems and others do not. This would again suggest a genetic influence. In the same way, there are also children within families who have behavioral and inconspicuous behavior, which speaks in favor of an environmental factor as a trigger. The truth arguably lies in between and needs further investigation.

Causes in upbringing

Educational and educational measures are the most effective treatment methods for behavioral problems. Conversely, this means that the wrong upbringing could trigger or at least modulate the disorders. Indeed, in the case of neglect and violence, it is clear where the children got their problems from. Most parents of behavioral children, however, are loving and concerned about the "troublemaker", so they do not provide any reason for assuming a poor upbringing.

Nevertheless, unconscious failures, such as a lack of structure and communication, can lead to behavioral problems. The children feel neglected and have no orientation if there are no rules or if these are not strictly adhered to. Fears and insecurities can turn into aggression and strain parental patience. Because many other children do not need this special combination of strictness and understanding, the parents are usually not aware of it. However, if they show themselves to be cooperative and take part in parenting training, these strategies can be implemented in parenting and have an enormous effect, especially with younger children.

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