Malignant thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is a malignant disease of the thyroid. The malice (malignancy) denotes that the tumor in the thyroid gland grows rapidly and daughter tumors (Thyroid cancer metastasis) can form. Such a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland originates in 95% of the so-called epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and is then referred to as thyroid carcinoma.

A distinction is made between several forms, which differ in the structure of their cells, the tendency to form metastases and ultimately in their prognosis and life expectancy. The thyroid cancer has to be differentiated from benign tumors of the thyroid gland Inflammation of the thyroid gland, Strumata and others benign changes.

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Also read more on the topics Thyroid cancer therapy and Cure thyroid cancer.

Papillary form of thyroid cancer

The papillary thyroid carcinoma participate 55% of all cases the most common form of thyroid cancer. The papillary thyroid carcinoma is one of the differentiated carcinomaswhich means that its cells are still very similar to normal thyroid cells. Papillary thyroid carcinoma got its name from the fact that, when viewed microscopically, the cells from the puncture are arranged in a papillary form.

The tumor shows up in the diagnosis Scintigram as a cold (i.e. not metabolically active) nodule, however, is able to store iodine, albeit to a lesser extent than healthy thyroid tissue. This property is essential for prognosis and life expectancy.

After distance (OP) the entire thyroid gland closes here Radioiodine therapy on. The patient is given several sessions high dose iodine 131 administered, which is deposited in the remaining cancer cells. In contrast to normal iodine, however, it cannot form the Thyroid hormones (Thyroxine), but destroys cancer cells through its radioactive properties.

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With the operational Removal of the entire thyroid gland (radical thyroidectomy) and the following Radioiodine therapy do patients have one very good prognosis.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma as a malignant tumor can also Resettlements (Metastases) form, mostly the obvious ones Lymph nodes affect. However, this can be done as part of the surgery with removed so that the tumor and its daughter tumors are completely removed from the body.

The 10 year survival rate is about 90%. Older patients and patients who have already had distant metastases have a slightly poorer prognosis. One speaks of a distant metastasis when the cancer has sent colonies not only to the regional lymph nodes but to other internal organs. This usually indicates an advanced stage of the cancer, which is associated with less good chances of recovery.

Anaplastic form of thyroid cancer

The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is in contrast to papillary carcinoma undifferentiated, its cells resemble those of the healthy thyroid very little.

Anaplastic thyroid cancers have that worst prognosis of all thyroid cancers, but are relative with 1-2% of all cases Rare.

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she grow strongly infiltrating (Ingrowth into neighboring organs) and aggressive. They often grow into neighboring structures such as the recurrent nerve, adjacent muscles, the windpipe (trachea) or the esophagus (esophagus), causing it to Thyroid Cancer Symptoms how hoarseness or shortness of breath can come.

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At the time of diagnosis, half of the patients already have Metastases. In thyroid cancer, these are mainly found in the lung, the bone and in brain and are prognostically unfavorable.

As with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the Thyroid gland with the surrounding lymph nodes completely removed. Afterwards (in other cases even before the operation) the patients are given a chemotherapy treated and irradiated, one speaks of a multimodal therapy concept. The promising one Radioiodine therapyused in other forms of thyroid cancer not used here come. The cancer cells of the anaplastic form are so degenerate that they can no longer absorb iodine, so radioiodine therapy has no effect.

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has one mean survival time from approx. 4 to 12 months, depending on how advanced the cancer is at the time of diagnosis.


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