Spinal diseases are extremely diverse in their causes and manifestations. The most common spinal diseases occur due to age due to increased wear and tear or long-term stress. There are also some congenital or acutely triggered diseases.
Here you will find a classification and a list of the most common spinal diseases.

Below you will find the most important diseases related to the spine, arranged according to:

  1. Degenerative diseases of the spine
  2. Inflammatory spine disease
  3. Congenital spinal diseases
  4. Changes in the shape of the spine
  5. Spinal injuries from fractures

Degenerative spinal diseases

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disc prolapse

In a herniated disc, tissue from the disc enters the spinal canal in which the spinal cord lies. The irritation of the nerve roots can lead to severe pain, paralysis and / or sensory disorders.
The most common herniated discs occur in the lumbar spine area.

Read more about this at: disc prolapse

Spinal stenosis

The spinal stenosis narrows the spinal canal in which the spinal cord and nerve roots lie. The narrowing can lead to sensory disturbances, numbness and abnormal sensations due to pressure on the nerves.
In addition, severe limitations of the muscular apparatus occur in the affected area.

Read more about this at:

  • Spinal stenosis
  • Surgery of a spinal stenosis

Spondylolisthesis - vertebral sliding

Spondylolisthesis can either be age-related or congenital. In the case of congenital spondylolisthesis, there is a disruption of the vertebral arch. This leads to instability between the vertebral bodies.
In contrast, the vertebral arch is not pathologically interrupted in the degenerative form of the disease. Nevertheless, instability also occurs here - this time triggered by wear of the intervertebral disc. Long-term stress on the intervertebral discs can lead to a decrease in height, which ultimately causes instability.

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Read more about this at: Spondylolisthesis

Spondylarthrosis - facet syndrome

In spondylarthrosis or the so-called facet syndrome, the small joint connections between the vertebrae are worn out.
Spondylarthrosis can either appear independently as the main disease, but it can also be triggered by other diseases of the spine.
The joint surfaces and joint capsules are also affected by the wear and tear of the joint. This can cause synovial fluid to escape and the joint capsule to become inflamed.

Read more about this at: Facet syndrome


Age-related heavy wear and tear on the intervertebral discs increases the pressure on the vertebral bodies immensely. In response to this increased pressure, the body forms bony outgrowths (Osteophytes) to distribute the pressure over a larger area.
These bones ultimately cause the severe pain in the spine associated with osteochondrosis.

Read more about this at: Osteochondrosis

Inflammatory spine disease

Ankylopoetic spondylitis - Bechterew's disease

Bechterew's disease is one of the most common chronic inflammatory rheumatoid diseases.
The inflammatory processes mainly occur in the spine and its joints. However, especially in the later stages, these can also be found in other joints and organs throughout the body.
The inflammation can ultimately lead to stiffening of the spine with corresponding restrictions on movement.

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Read more about this at: ankylosing spondylitis


In the clinical picture of spondylodiscitis there is an inflammation of a vertebral body and the adjacent intervertebral disc, which is mostly caused by bacteria.
By far the most common pathogen causing the infection is the so-called Staphylococcus aureus.
A distinction is made between the settling of bacteria in the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc via the bloodstream in the context of blood poisoning and the inflammation caused by a doctor's own injury caused by a spinal surgery

Read more about this at: Spondylodiscitis

Congenital spinal diseases

Baastrup's disease

Baastrup's disease is a pain syndrome that often occurs in the lumbar vertebra area and is triggered by the spinous processes of the vertebrae touching one another.
The approaching of the spinous processes causes irritation of the surrounding muscles and ligaments.
In addition, new bone, cartilage and joint formations occur at the contact points of the spinous processes.

Read more about this at: Baastrup's disease

Klippel-Feil Syndrome

The Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare congenital disease of the spine. Adhesions mainly occur in the area of ​​the cervical spine.
The syndrome can, however, be accompanied by other malformations.
The severity of the syndrome varies widely and can be completely harmless and barely visible, or it can be accompanied by severe malformations.

Read more about this at: Klippel-Feil Syndrome

KiSS syndrome

The so-called KiSS syndrome (head joint-induced symmetry disorder) is a misalignment of the two uppermost vertebrae. These vertebrae connect the head to the spine. Therefore, the syndrome leads to a bad posture.
The KiSS syndrome is not recognized by conventional medicine due to a lack of evidence for the existence of the syndrome. Likewise, the statutory health insurance does not recognize the KiSS syndrome, so that the costs for a therapy have to be paid privately.

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Read more about this at: KiSS syndrome

Changes in the shape of the spine


Scoliosis is a deformation of the spine to the side. In addition to the bending, vertebral bodies are twisted.
If the spine is still in the growth phase, the deformation can worsen within a very short time.
In the case of mild forms of scoliosis, treatment is sometimes not necessary, but if it is more severe it should definitely be treated in order to keep damage to health as low as possible.

Read more about this at: Scoliosis

Forestier's disease

In the so-called Morus Forestier there is ossification and growths on the vertebral bodies. In the long term, these new ossifications will even bridge the intervertebral disc spaces, so that there will be increasing restrictions on movement and stiffening.
Although no real cause of the disease is known, an above-average number of patients with metabolic diseases such as gout or diabetes mellitus also suffer from Forestier's disease.

Please also read: Forestier's disease

Scheuermann's disease

Scheuermann's disease is the most common spinal change in the growth phase, which mostly affects the thoracic spine.
In the disease, growth disorders occur in the vertebral bodies, which lead to changes in the vibration of the spine.
Typically, the disease begins in puberty and comes to a standstill in young adulthood.

Read more about this at: Scheuermann's disease

Spinal injuries from fractures

Vertebral fracture

If a vertebral fracture occurs, one of the vertebral bodies of the spine breaks.
The fracture can either be traumatic due to an accident or due to osteoporosis.
In the worst case, the fracture can injure the spinal cord.

Please also read: Vertebral fracture

Pain in the spine

Spine pain is a very common problem that plagues many people during their lifetime. In principle, the pain can occur along the entire length of the spine, but it appears preferred in some areas. The accompanying symptoms and the limitations caused by the pain also vary with the patient Location of pain. If the cervical spine is affected by pain, this represents a severe restriction in everyday life Rotations, flexions and extensions in the cervical spine take place permanently. The neck has an extremely high mobility and every time you look around, the cervical spine also unconsciously moves with it. If there is pain, all of these movements are restricted and the neck may need to be stabilized with a cervical collar. Are with complaints about the cervical spine annoy involved, the pain can radiate along the course of the nerves to the arms and fingers.

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By far the most common pain in the spine is the Lumbar spine (see also: Lumbar spine pain). She is a common place of chronic low back painthat can be triggered by a variety of causes. It can Herniated discs, ISG blockages, degenerative changes and many other diseases are behind it. If the nerves are involved, the pain can be transmitted to the buttocks, legs and toes. In particular heavy lifting, general Sedentary lifestyle and Muscle weakness are responsible for the frequent pain in the lumbar area.

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