Bleeding gums are generally one of the most common symptoms in dentistry. On average, every third patient over 40 has occasional bleeding from the gums.
Since bleeding, regardless of its extent, type and location, is widely regarded as a warning signal, a dentist should urgently be consulted if bleeding gums occur frequently. While bleeding gums can have a wide variety of causes, the therapy is quite similar for almost all reasons.

Causes of Bleeding Gums

If a reddish discoloration of the toothpaste foam occurs when you brush your teeth, it is usually due to an inflamed gum, a Gingivitis, or even from periodontitis with pocket formation.

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The causes of such inflammation of the gums (Gingivitis) can be versatile, but in the majority of affected patients it is caused by bacterial plaque (Plaque) and thus triggered by irregular or poorly performed oral hygiene. Plaque is a tough bio-film that consists mainly of waste products from bacterial metabolism and food residues.

This dental plaque adheres to the tooth surface and, if it is not removed, can even penetrate under the gumline in the long term. Once there, the deposits settle in the area of ​​the tooth root and cause inflammatory processes and deep gum pockets.

Vitamin C deficiency due to malnutrition can also lead to bleeding gums.

Read more on the topic: Bleeding gums due to deficiency

The first symptom of gingivitis is the characteristic bleeding gums. In contrast to the inflammation of the periodontitis, gingivitis is an isolated disease that does not involve any other structures within the oral cavity and heals after treatment without permanent damage.

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If the appropriate treatment is neglected, however, periodontitis can develop from a pure gum inflammation with bleeding gums. Inflammation around the gums is generally easy to spot.

The gums are discolored red in contrast to the normal pink color. In such cases, a little irritation of the gums with a toothbrush is enough to trigger bleeding. If you neglect oral hygiene in order to avoid bleeding, you start a vicious circle, because then the bacterial plaque will multiply; the root cause of the gingivitis and the inflammation and tendency to bleed increases.

But even if you use the dental floss or the wooden teeth inappropriately, injuries to the gums in the interdental space can occur, which then lead to bleeding. Excessive tartar build-up also leads to inflammation of the gums, as it promotes the growth of plaque thanks to its rough surface.

Read more on the topic: Causes of Bleeding Gums

Bleeding gums as an indication of HIV disease?

The HIV virus causes a number of typical symptoms, often starting out like the flu. Fever, muscle aches and headaches, fatigue and night shit are in the foreground here.
Only later, when the immune system has already been weakened, will changes also appear in the oral cavity. This is often due to fungal colonization or gum disease. These can also be accompanied by bleeding gums.
However, it does not represent a really meaningful sign by which one can definitely determine the HIV infection. Much more often, bleeding gums are just a simple complication of gingivitis, the inflammation of the gums.

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Learn more about the topic at: Bleeding gums as a sign of HIV infection

Bleeding gums during pregnancy

Many people are familiar with the problem of bleeding gums. It seems particularly common to affect young women who are undergoing hormonal changes due to pregnancy. The gums initially swell and pregnancy gingivitis develops, which after a while begins to bleed when touched lightly. Dental floss and interdental brushes trigger bleeding.

In no case should you stop brushing your teeth because of this, because: the right technique is what counts. Circular movements can do more harm than good here. It is much better to wipe from red to white, i.e. starting from the gum and into the correct tooth. A toothbrush with soft bristles can be used for this, as this is less irritating to the gums.

The dentist can and should be seen if the bleeding does not go away or if there is additional pain. Otherwise serious consequences such as periodontal disease are inevitable. It is important to point out the pregnancy to the dentist so that unnecessary x-rays are avoided.

More about this at: Bleeding gums during pregnancy

Can bleeding gums be an indication of pregnancy?

As already described, the pregnancy-related hormonal changes can lead to a loosening of the tissue and thus trigger gingivitis. Since this hormonal change takes place at the very beginning of pregnancy, bleeding gums are mainly a complication in the first three months. If there are no other typical symptoms and the bleeding occurs suddenly without any other identifiable cause, it may well be that this will discover the pregnancy. Bleeding gums are therefore among the typical first signs, but are not necessarily associated with pregnancy.

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Which deficiencies can trigger bleeding gums?

If there is a lack of trace elements or vitamins, the body can often not adequately compensate for them. A wide variety of diseases are triggered by missing, but necessary, building blocks. The vitamin C deficiency, known as scurvy, very often causes bleeding gums. However, this is more likely with a very severe deficiency, which occurs extremely rarely due to today's diet.

Vitamin D deficiency also increases the risk of periodontal disease and thus increases the likelihood of bleeding gums. Finally, the iron deficiency should be mentioned. It triggers changes in the oral mucosa and bleeding gums.

Other possible causes of bleeding gums

Inflammation of the gums is one of the most common causes of bleeding gums

Although poor oral hygiene and the resulting inflammatory processes in the gum area (Latin: gingiva) are still considered to be the main cause of bleeding gums, it has been known for several years that a number of other reasons also promote the development of inflammation in the oral cavity .

Tobacco use, increased breathing through the mouth (Mouth breathing) and untreated carious defects are also among the factors that can cause bleeding gums. Furthermore, life partners with inflammation of the gums or inflammatory processes in the area of ​​the periodontal support represent a risk factor. Bleeding in the oral cavity can also have completely different causes.

Patients who are constantly taking blood-thinning drugs such as Marcumar, heparin, may also suffer from bleeding gums. With them, an important component of blood clotting, vitamin K, is inhibited. This also applies to patients who receive medication, which reduces the number of blood platelets, which are also an important factor in blood clotting.

Of course, there is a high risk of bleeding in the oral cavity with haemorrhages if injuries have occurred there. You need to be extra careful with oral hygiene. Pointed toothpicks, as they are offered in some restaurants, can damage the gums. Blood diseases like leukemia can also cause bleeding gums. Overactive thyroid can also sometimes be accompanied by bleeding gums.

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Furthermore, extensive studies have shown that people who suffer from so-called diabetes have an increased risk of inflammation of the gums. This also increases the likelihood of bleeding gums. On average, around one in two people will develop gingivitis at least once in their lifetime (Gingivitis) with bleeding gums.

Read more on the topic: Inflammation of the gums

In addition, a high level of stress is a risk factor for the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the gums and / or the gums. This fact can be explained by the stress-induced inhibition of the immune system and the resulting immune deficiency. In the meantime, science even assumes that a genetic predisposition is a decisive risk factor.

What are the symptoms of bleeding gums?

The bleeding gums itself is usually not a disease in itself. Rather, it is a symptom of a (mostly inflammatory), pathological change within the oral cavity. Bleeding gums are the first and most important sign of gum inflammation (Gingivitis).
In addition, if you have gingivitis with bleeding gums, you may experience pain when brushing or chewing your teeth. Severe redness and / or dark discoloration of the gumline are also among the most common signs.
In addition, the bleeding gums usually appear swollen and thickened.

Read more on the topic: Pain in the gums

Therapy of bleeding gums

If the cause of the bleeding is inflammation of the gums, the removal of the plaque will quickly end the bleeding tendency in the case of bleeding gums. First, a softer toothbrush should be used until the inflammation has subsided.

You can support this by using antibacterial mouthwashes. If there are already gingival pockets with bleeding gums, the dentist must be visited, who can measure the pocket depth and initiate the necessary therapy. He will carry out a professional teeth cleaning and remove any tartar that may be present.

Teeth are usually stained before professional teeth cleaning is carried out. This is used to make dental plaque that has not been removed visible and to clarify those areas in which oral hygiene should be optimized.
This is followed by instructions on a suitable toothbrushing technique, which is adapted to the particular conditions of the jaw of the individual patient.
In the course of professional tooth cleaning, the treating dentist uses special instruments (Curettes), which, due to their specific grind, can be guided close to the tooth substance and remove plaque in visible and invisible areas (at the root).

The removal of the soft (Plaque) and hard (tartar) deposits can be made as efficiently as possible in this way. The cleaning of the areas below the gumline is particularly important, because only the complete removal of the deposits can contribute to the regression of the gum pockets.

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Some dentists carry out professional teeth cleaning using a "sandblaster" (Air flow) by.
However, from a dental point of view, this procedure is not entirely harmless, as the particles of the emitter roughen the tooth surface and thus create new dirt niches and lead to the loss of hard tooth substance in the long term. However, it is ideally suited for cleaning implants.

In the Pregnancy gingivitis The inflammation of the gums and the swelling of the gingiva take care of themselves after the birth when the hormone balance has normalized again.
You might also be interested in: Bleeding gums during pregnancy

For all other causes of bleeding gums, not only the dentist is responsible, but also the relevant specialist. Blood or ultrasound examinations are necessary here.
Read more on the topic: Therapy of bleeding gums

Which home remedies help?

As with almost all diseases, there are a number of home remedies for bleeding gums that can quickly relieve symptoms. Above all, daily dental care with a toothbrush and dental floss is at the top. It is the most effective home remedy, provided it is done at least twice a day.

The affected sore spots can also be rinsed several times with chamomile tea. Kamile has an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect and effectively combats gingivitis.
The same applies to garlic. This has a bactericidal effect and can be helpful in healing by chewing a toe.
In addition, there is also the Australian tea tree oil, it works against inflammation and at the same time promotes the healing process.

Oil pulling with olive oil or special drawing oils can also make bleeding gums disappear. To do this, keep a teaspoon of oil in your mouth for about 8-10 minutes and pull it from one side to the other every morning. In addition to detoxifying the mucous membranes, it also reduces the build-up of dental plaque and thus the development of caries.

Homeopathy for bleeding gums

Excessive pressure when brushing your teeth can trigger spontaneous bleeding of the gums; the remedy potassium bichromicum helps here.
However, if it is more of a canker sore, Lachesis mutis is often recommended. If there is also a bitter taste, Nux vomica is used.

These natural remedies can be used over a period of about a week and should not be overestimated. If there is no improvement within this range, the dentist should be consulted urgently and the problems combated there - especially if there is additional pain, fever or enlarged lymph nodes.

Which toothpaste helps against bleeding gums?

Many manufacturers are well aware of the problem of bleeding gums, which is why they are constantly researching new products that are supposed to curb the bleeding. The toothpaste Parodontax® is often recommended, which, after overcoming it at the beginning due to its strong taste, leads to an improvement after about two weeks.

You can get to the main article here: Parodontax toothpaste

Toothpastes with anti-inflammatory effects, which are intended to curb bleeding and later also prevent it, are available with the ingredients tea tree oil or chamomile. In addition to the toothpaste, a mouthwash solution should also be used permanently in order to achieve long-term success.

Diagnosis of bleeding gums

If bleeding gums occur frequently, there is a risk of the inflammation spreading to important structures of the periodontium. In the worst case, the loss of actually completely healthy teeth can follow.
For this reason, affected patients should consult their general practitioner or a specialist in periodontics as soon as possible.
The diagnosis of bleeding gums is made by conducting an extensive screening. This means that both the condition of the teeth and the appearance of the gums are examined.

Swollen, darkly discolored gums generally indicate severe inflammation. In the course of the periodontal screening, the treating dentist determines both the depth and the extent of the spaces between the teeth and the gums (gingival pockets). The attending dentist has the option of measuring the gingival pockets in two different ways.
As a rule, the so-called periodontal screening index (PSI for short) is used, in which the measurement is made for the individual teeth per quadrant. Specialists in periodontics prefer a much more extensive procedure, in which measurements are taken in six places around the tooth.

The exact depth of the pockets is determined by inserting a narrow, graduated probe between the tooth substance and the gums. In addition, a special microbial test can be carried out during the diagnostic session, which is used to determine the exact germs. In the course of this test, absorbent paper pens are placed in the gingival pockets and then checked for germs.
An X-ray image (OPG) can be made to assess the situation of the jawbone. An OPG is an image that depicts the teeth in the jaw and the bony jaw.

Bleeding gums in children - what's behind it?

As in adults, bleeding gums in (small) children are usually a symptom of poor oral hygiene. Due to increased deposits, this leads to pronounced gingivitis and makes the gums more susceptible to external stimuli. In addition to poor oral hygiene, the wrong diet is also a risk factor. Drinks with a high sugar content increase the likelihood of plaque build-up and thus trigger bleeding gums.

Sometimes, however, there can be a completely harmless explanation behind it. Scrubbing too hard while brushing your teeth or falling will damage your gums and start bleeding. Furthermore, many small children often have an allergy problem, which can lead to mouth breathing - especially at night - due to a blocked nose. This dries out the mucous membranes and leads to an increased tendency to bleed.

All in all, however, the disease in the toddler should only be observed for a few days and a dentist or family doctor should be consulted after about a week at the latest. A more severe and long-term disease could damage the child's permanent teeth.

Bleeding gums and bad breath

In most cases, inflammation of the gums is caused by bacteria or other pathogens (for example mushrooms), it is considered to be the main cause of bleeding gums.
Due to the high exposure to pathogens and the release of special inflammatory factors, many sufferers also suffer from bad breath.

In order to put a stop to bad breath, it is therefore important to contain the inflammatory processes in the oral cavity. The most important measure is therefore regular and adequate oral hygiene, in which, however, it is not just a matter of frequency but above all of carefulness. Teeth should be cleaned before bed, after breakfast, and after lunch. In the morning and at noon, simple tooth brushing is generally considered sufficient, but in the evening a lot more time should be invested in oral hygiene. The use of dental floss and / or interdental brushes (Interdental brushes) and mouth rinsing solutions are used for complete cleaning.

Also read: Fight bad breath

Leukemia and bleeding gums

Leukemia is a disease of the blood-forming system. An uncontrolled proliferation of white blood cells displaces the formation of the red blood cells necessary for survival. This imbalance leads mainly to typical symptoms such as skin bleeding and frequent bruises (bruises). But bleeding gums are also part of this.
However, one should only worry if several typical symptoms suddenly appear at the same time. Since bleeding gums are usually harmless, you shouldn't worry as long as it occurs alone.

You might also be interested in: How do you recognize leukemia?

Prognosis for bleeding gums

The prognosis is very good if the dentist treats the inflammation of the gums and the disease of the periodontal organs correctly. It is important, however, that the patient avoid recurrence of bleeding gums through careful oral hygiene.
For the other diseases, the prognosis depends on the treatability of the underlying diseases.

You might also be interested in this topic: Bad breath

How can you prevent bleeding gums?

The removal of bacterial plaque through the use of toothbrushes and toothpaste as well as dental floss and tooth sticks for the interdental spaces is the safest prophylaxis of bleeding gums, since with the removal of the plaque the basis for an inflammation of the gums is removed.

Regular visits to the dentist for control have a supportive effect.

Find out more about: Ultrasonic toothbrush

Cost of bleeding gums

The costs of professional teeth cleaning are usually not covered by the statutory health insurances, even if there is bleeding gums. As a result, the patient, unless he has taken out additional dental insurance, has to pay the costs himself. The price fluctuates on average between 70 and 150 euros.

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