The most common visual disturbances in children are myopia, hyperopia, or strabismus . The vision defects can be both acquired and innate. In order to recognize visual disturbances early and to treat them, an eye test is performed at U9 at the age of five before entering the school.
In the other U examinations (child screening) attention is paid to strabismus (strabismus). If a strabismus is detected, the child is referred to the ophthalmologist or neurologist to get to the root cause and to correct it. The Strabismus can be recognized at the pediatrician with high severity already in the first days of life. This makes it quick and easy to handle.
The causes of visual impairment in children may vary. Generally speaking, congenital myopia and farsightedness ( hyperopia ) are due to a too long or too short eyeball. This causes the light does not reach the retina and so the image can not be sharply imaged. This can also arise over time.
Other causes may be a relaxation of the M. ciliaris, which serves to adapt ( accommodation ) the lens. However, this rarely happens in childhood, but rather in adulthood.
Strabismus is the result of an imbalance of the muscles in the eye. The eye has a total of six muscles that control the eye movements. If a muscle predominates, it can lead to strabismus. Likewise, the reason for a strabismus may be a cranial nerve failure. Certain cranial nerves control the eye muscles. The problem of strabismus must be treated by the ophthalmologist or neurologist.
Accompanying symptoms of hyperopia can be headache. For example, since children have to work hard to read, they often have a headache. Another symptom can be bad grades at school. Because children can not read things on the paper or on the board, they may not be able to properly handle those tasks.
A severe strabismus can also cause headaches. In addition, it can happen that the children can no longer participate in everyday life, since the visual impairment is too pronounced by the Strabismus.
Myopia is treated with the help of glasses. Used for this are minus glasses. The adjustment of the glasses should be done by an ophthalmologist. Due to the minus glasses, the sight in the distance gets worse and worse. Therefore, glasses should never over-correct vision, so the eye has the chance to work for themselves. It is possible that wearing a pair of glasses during myopia is life-long.
The hyperopia is also corrected with glasses. Here Plus glasses are used. Wearing a pair of glasses should be done daily, because unlike myopia, wearing glasses regularly can help to improve it. This can cause the eyes to work again without support after a while.
Strabismus belongs in the hands of a professional. Depending on the cause, an ophthalmologist or a neurologist should be consulted.
The duration or prognosis depends on the type of vision defect. Normally, congenital vision defects can not be cured but are good to treat. Short-sightedness ( myopia) can be corrected with glasses, but usually lifelong wear is required. Farsightedness ( hyperopia) can be cured if the glasses are worn regularly. Strabismus is harder to treat, it depends on the cause of strabismus.
It is important in all visual disturbances that the child is regularly presented to the ophthalmologist to identify any possible improvements or deterioration and to respond to it. Care should also be taken to follow the recommendations of the attending physician, although sometimes difficult to do in children.
In general, however, it can be said that visual disturbances in children are usually not dangerous and easy to correct. In the rarest cases, there is a neurological problem, which is then usually associated with other neurological disorders.