Antibiotics in tonsillitis

introduction

In healthy people, the palatine tonsils are usually not visible in patients with tonsillitis but very clear.

An tonsillitis (= tonsillitis) is characterized by sudden, severe sore throat, fever, dysphagia and swollen tonsils that persist for several days. An almond inflammation is the inflammation of the so-called palatine tonsils . In healthy people, the palatine tonsils are optimally not visible when the mouth is open, in those with tonsillitis they are easy to see when looking into the open mouth right and left of the uvula (= uvula) and they can in extreme cases even so much that they to touch in the middle under the uvula. In tonsillitis, germs usually reach the airway in the oral and pharyngeal affected. Either they are distributed directly in the air or they are bound to small liquid particles in the air. Many people carry the pathogenic germs in their mouth, but they do not necessarily trigger inflammation. So healthy people can spread this germ, which can then infect some people. Each time these people sneeze or cough, small particles of fluid escape into the air and can be inhaled by other people. Therefore, it is also important to refrain from already infected patients to prevent this type of transmission.

As with many other diseases, viruses or bacteria may also be the culprits of the disease in tonsillitis. However, because antibiotics are ineffective in viruses, it is important to consider carefully when the antibiotic use is useful and the patient can help at all. In contrast to bacteria, viruses invade human cells and multiply there. The problem with this is that most antibiotics can not work within the cells and are therefore ineffective against viruses. Bacteria, however, are located outside cells and are easily accessible for antibiotics because of their structure. The first signs of bacteria as the cause of tonsillitis may be fever, lack of cough and thick almonds. A virus disease is more likely if the sore throat occurs as part of a cold. Even a swab with a quick test can still provide clues to the cause. If bacteria are likely to be the cause, it must still be weighed whether an antibiotic is the right remedy.

Research shows that most patients get rid of the symptoms after one week, and that while the antibiotics give a quick improvement, the overall duration of the disease is only slightly shortened. Of particular importance, however, are patients who are prone to middle ear infections, especially children. Middle ear infections are often caused by germs that enter the middle ear through the tympanic duct from the mouth, nose or throat area. The tympanic duct connects the pharynx and middle ear to provide pressure equalization so that the eardrum does not rupture under heavy pressure fluctuations. This course also promotes the development of middle ear infections. Since a middle ear infection can have serious consequences, here is somewhat more generous to deal with the use of antibiotics in case of tonsillitis. As with any drug, the benefits to the potential side effects of an antibiotic should always be considered. After all, according to studies, 10% of adults are affected by side effects of an antibiotic, especially diarrhea and skin lesions. Antibiotics are still mandatory in case of purulent tonsillitis caused by streptococci, a bacterial species that can cause serious damage to the kidneys and heart. It is always important to take over the entire period prescribed by the doctor, even if this often takes longer than the existing symptoms. If you stop taking it too soon, some bacteria may survive and the inflammation may rekindle again and again. However, if in the opposite case, an antibiotic after 2 days no longer show any effect, then the affected person should visit a doctor again to clarify whether another antibiotic should be prescribed.

In the drug groups used, there are several representatives who can be used against tonsillitis.

amoxicillin

A well-known representative of the typical antibiotics and also in the tonsillitis often used drugs is the amoxicillin. It is used to treat a wide variety of diseases. From gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory infections, inflammation in the ear, nose and throat area to bone inflammation, it is versatile. Depending on the type of disease and, of course, depending on the age and weight of the patient, the dosages differ. Amoxicillin ensures in the body that the bacteria die off in their growth phase. Amoxicillin can be taken as a tablet, effervescent tablet or dry juice. Juice taking in children works very well when tablets are problematic to swallow and especially when the neck hurts enormously. Amoxicillin is best tolerated when ingested during a meal because it has the least side effects.

The most important side effects include rashes, a dry mouth and fever. In the gastrointestinal area, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may occur. Overall, however, amoxicillin is highly tolerated compared to other antibiotics. Alcohol should be avoided while taking amoxicillin or antibiotics in general. Both alcohol and many antibiotics are broken down in the liver. If alcohol and antibiotics get in the way, it can lead to organ damage in the worst case.

Caution should be exercised during pregnancy and lactation and amoxicillin should only be taken as directed by a doctor. While taking the birth control pill, another contraceptive should be used as long as amoxicillin is taken because the effect of amoxicillin on the gastrointestinal tract may reduce the effect of the anti-baby pill no longer be guaranteed with the same high probability.

cephalosporins

This group of antibiotics are also used to treat infections and inflammation of the ear, nose and throat, such as tonsillitis or middle ear infections. Other uses include urinary tract infections or skin infections caused by bacteria. Known drugs are cefaclor, cefuroxime or ceftriaxone. These substances, like amoxicillin, hinder bacteria in their growth and cause them to die. They are also very well tolerated and are considered to have very few side effects. Of course, side effects can not be ruled out. They are also very suitable for pregnant and lactating women, but should only be taken on prescription of a doctor.

Even if the antibiotics mentioned so far cover a large part of the known germs, one must increasingly deal with the fact that many antibiotics lose their effect. The bacteria learn to deal with the antibiotics over time and no longer be harmed by its effects. Thus, the antibiotic loses its effect and must be replaced by another.

macrolides

Macrolides such as telithromycin or clarithromycin are always used if you can not tolerate the antibiotics described above or if the bacteria have learned to become resistant to the antibiotics and consequently a change is necessary. Her main area of ​​application is sinusitis and sexually transmitted diseases. They act on the protein production of cells that can not survive without proteins, let alone continue to grow or multiply. A big advantage is the long duration of action, so it only has to be given once a day compared to the other groups. At least as great a disadvantage is the interaction with other drugs in the liver. Most of the medications we take are broken down in the liver. If too many active ingredients are added to the liver, it can no longer guarantee optimum degradation and it can lead to damage to the liver. Important medications that must be taken into consideration are anticoagulants, sleeping pills and tranquilizers, analgesics, allergy remedies and mental illness.

In addition to antibiotics, other medications such as painkillers are important for the treatment of tonsillitis. Paracetamol is good for this purpose or ibuprofen, since in addition to pain relief it can also work against the inflammation and reduce the fever. Also very useful are lozenges, which easily numb the irritated throat area and thus at least temporarily allow painless swallowing. With repeated tonsillitis antibiotics are not always the right solution. If the inflammation occurs several times a year, almonds should be removed rather than antibiotics several times a year. Each inflammation leaves scars and provides an excellent basis for the growth of new bacteria. A recurrent cycle begins and can only be interrupted in the short term, but never in the long term by antibiotics.


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