The antrum (lat. Sinus maxillaris ) belongs anatomically to the paranasal sinuses and is located within the bone structures of the upper jaw (lat. Maxilla ).
The maxillary sinus is directly associated with the middle nasal passage in most mammalian humans. For this reason, pathogens (mainly bacteria) can quite easily migrate from the nasal cavity into the antrum, multiply unhindered there and trigger infections as well as inflammatory processes.
The diameter of the drainage drains is closely related to the occurrence of such problems, because the narrower the drains, the higher the risk of the occurrence of antritis. For this reason, it can come especially at a narrowing of these ways to the frequent emergence of morbid processes. All inflammations in the area of the paranasal sinuses are summarized in medical terminology under the term sinusitis ( sinusitis ). In isolated present an inflammation in the region of the antrum one calls the occurring illness as maxillary sinusitis ( Sinustitis maxillaris ).
The maxillary sinusitis is a change in the mucous membrane in the area of the paranasal sinuses, caused by the negative influences of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.
In general, the medicine distinguishes between an acute and a chronic form of maxillary sinusitis, the duration of which differs significantly.
Experience has shown that the intensity of the toothache as part of an antritis increases steadily with the healing process. In general, an antritis in a viral sinusitis should have subsided within one to two weeks. The toothache should therefore also significantly reduce in this period until disappear. However, if a fortified infection from the oral cavity in the form of a rotten tooth is the cause of the inflammation of the antrum, a permanent elimination of toothache will be achieved only with a dental restoration. The successful treatment at the dentist will lead to a drastic reduction of the pain. In such cases, those affected should be virtually symptom-free after a few days.
An antibiotic should necessarily be taken dutifully according to medical prescription. It is up to the doctor to select the antibiotic as well as to determine the duration of the treatment. The period of administration sometimes depends on the severity of the disease and other factors such as additional illnesses and the age of the person affected. Therefore, a precise period can not be specified exactly, but it is usually between 1 to 2 weeks. In any case, it is important to continue taking the antibiotic for at least two to three days after the symptoms subsided significantly and not to discontinue it directly if symptoms improve. Only then can an efficient eradication of the pathogens be guaranteed.
The acute sinusitis usually occurs suddenly and uniquely, in most cases, it is only of small duration.
The main cause of their development is in most cases, a simple cold or other harmless colds infections. In the course of the infection, pathogens (bacteria or viruses), starting from the nasal cavity, can migrate into the antrum and provoke the occurrence of mucosal swelling there.
In turn, these swellings narrow the natural secretion drainage pathways, triggering inflammatory processes.
An acute sinusitis is usually associated with:
The duration of such a form of maxillary sinusitis is roughly comparable to the duration of the common cold infection. After a week at the latest, the symptoms should have gone significantly back or already completely disappeared.
The chronic form of antritis describes a disease of the paranasal sinus, whose average duration is longer than two to three months.
Also, inflammatory processes in the area of the antrum, which occur repeatedly within a very short time, are counted from a medical point of view to the chronic forms of maxillary sinusitis.
Chronic sinusitis develops in the majority of cases directly from acute inflammation of this paranasal sinus. This fact can be explained by the fact that acute inflammation of many affected patients is given only insufficiently long healing time. For this reason, the symptoms of the sinusitis can subside after the usual duration of this disease, but the immigrant bacteria can multiply again and flare up the inflammatory processes again.
In addition, certain antibiotic resistances can lead to the development of chronic chronic sinusitis with a long duration. Other possible causes, which differ mainly with regard to the duration of the triggered antritis, are:
The symptoms of chronic antritis are perceived by the patient over a period of several months.
The most common symptoms include over a long period of time:
General signs of infection such as fever and malaise may also occur over a period of several months in connection with antritis.
Throughout the period of the presence of antritis, patients should drink plenty of fluids, especially water and tea.
In addition, warm baths or the use of hot water bottles help to relieve the symptoms during the first days of illness.
The use of saline nasal sprays or nose drops can also help to reduce the swelling of the mucous membranes.
To alleviate the pain, analgesics such as paracetamol or ibuprofen may be taken as needed during the period of inflammation. In the case of a bacteria-induced infection of the maxillary sinus, an antibiotic should also be taken.
If the sinusitis is more likely to be due to anatomical reasons (curvature of the nasal septum) or if it is favored by polyps, it may be that an operative treatment becomes necessary.
Straightening the nasal septum or removing the polyps may already be sufficient to minimize the risk of recurrence of antritis. This can be explained by the fact that a good outflow of the nasal secretion significantly reduces the probability of the development of inflammatory processes within the antrum.