The right dental care

introduction

The best prophylaxis of tooth decay and dental disease is the correct dental care. It removes the bacterial plaque and ensures that the bacteria responsible for the dental disease are removed. The appropriate tools for dental care are provided by the industry. Read also our topic professional teeth cleaning.

Which dental care products are there?

With today's understanding of oral health, sustainable and thorough oral hygiene is essential. Everyone should try to get their own teeth through good care as long as possible. The focus is always on the toothbrush and the toothpaste, which are irreplaceable.
A distinction must be made between manual toothbrushes, electric brushes, sonic and ultrasonic brushes. The selection of toothpastes is extremely extensive. It should be noted in general that the fluoride content is 1450 ppm and the RDA value is low. This value describes the particle size within the toothpaste and thus the erosive effect. Whitening toothpastes always have a very high RDA value, which is why it is not recommended. An RDA value between 35 and 60 is optimal for daily use, everything beyond that is permanently harmful.

But toothpaste and toothbrush alone are not enough to clean the interdental spaces. For this there are dental floss and interdental brushes; For dental prosthesis support special floss floss exists to optimally clean bridge members. The interdental spaces can also be cleaned with an oral irrigator. Furthermore, there are tongue cleaners to release the tongue coverings and remove bacteria.

Toothbrushes

The most important tool for cleaning the teeth is the toothbrush. The toothbrush has 3 important distinguishing features. They are:

  • brush handle
  • brush head
  • brush bristles

The stem should be shaped so that it fits well and firmly in the hand. The industry offers many different forms that each have their authority, but everyone should use the brush with which he has the best feeling. Above all, the handle should not move in the palm while brushing. Good is also a support surface for the thumb.

The brush head should be short. With a short head you get better at each individual tooth, above all, the inner sides of the teeth can be better achieved. A long brush head does not take into account that the teeth are in the arch, this is especially the case in the canine area. The inside of the teeth can not be optimally achieved.

Of crucial importance are the brush bristles. In the past, natural bristles were often offered. We know today that natural bristles are not suitable. They can not be rounded off and they have a medullary canal in which bacteria feel and reproduce extremely well. Therefore, today you only use plastic bristles that have no tips because they can be rounded and also have no hiding angles for bacteria. The bristles are fastened in tufts on the brush head. You are flexible, but you will be right back. Depending on the bristle arrangement, two groups can be distinguished:

  1. V toothbrushes
  2. Multi-toothbrushes.

With the V brush, the tufts are in reverse V position against each other. In the multituft brush, the bristle tufts are vertical and thus have a flat surface. These toothbrushes are offered in different configurations. In addition to a plane, flat surface, there are those in which the bristles have different lengths, or have softer on the edge and harder bristles in the middle. The aim of these modifications is in all cases to clean even the hard to reach interdental spaces better and to protect the gums. The hardness of the bristles also plays a role. There are soft, medium and hard bristles. The toothbrushes with soft bristles are suitable for very sensitive gums, which is rarely the case, or after surgery until wound healing is complete. The hard bristles should only be used in people whose gums are particularly resistant, which is also rarely the case. In the main, the bristles of medium strength are recommended.

Electric toothbrush

The cleaning of the teeth can be just as effective with the toothbrush as with the electric toothbrush. The advantage of the latter lies in the multiple number of correct cleaning movements in the unit of time and thus a certain time savings and it meets the technical interest. The correct brushing movements are carried out automatically. In children, it provides a good motivation for dental care. The brush heads can have either a round or a flat bristle field. Like the manual toothbrushes, the brush heads should be replaced regularly.

In summary, one can say that with respect to the toothbrush one is always right with a multituft brush of medium hardness, with a short brush head and a firmly held brush handle. A disinfection of the toothbrush is not necessary if it is kept dry. However, it should be renewed every 6 to 8 weeks.

ultrasonic toothbrush

Ultrasonic toothbrushes differ in their mode of action from other toothbrushes. The ultrasonic toothbrush does not work mechanically but acts indirectly in combination with a special toothpaste. The ultrasonic waves of the toothbrush cause the microparticles in the toothpaste to burst on the surface of the tooth and can thereby detach plaque deposits. Therefore, the ultrasonic toothbrush does not need to perform any rotational or scrubbing movements to clean, it just has to come into contact with the toothpaste. The particles move through the vibrations into every corner of the oral cavity and also clean hard-to-reach areas.

Vegan toothbrushes

Most manual toothbrushes are not vegan as they contain animal fats in the plastic. Meanwhile, some vegan toothbrushes are also available in drugstores. However, these are all manual. Electric brush heads are not vegan yet. The vegan manual toothbrushes are specially declared, so they are easily recognizable. They are made of plastic, bamboo or wood and are minimally more expensive in price than the non-vegan toothbrushes.

Toothbrushes without plastic

Toothbrushes without plastic are all manual, in electric brush heads plastic is always included. Most vegan manual toothbrushes advertise being plastic-free so they are 100% recyclable. The handle of the toothbrush is made of wood or bamboo, the bristles of nylon. Unlike non-vegan toothbrushes, the nylon is made without plasticizer. Meanwhile, children's models are available.

toothpaste

Theoretically, one could remove the plaque with the toothbrush alone without a toothpaste, but it would take twice as long. Toothpaste has other properties that make it an indispensable part of oral hygiene. She should:

  • Support the cleaning of the teeth
  • Bring drugs into the oral cavity
  • Make toothbrushing easier

There are two different content groups for toothpaste, the

  1. drugs
  2. excipients

The formulation of a toothpaste is expensive, because the ingredients must be mutually compatible and stable. The active ingredients fluoride is at the top, and is an indispensable component of a toothpaste. Fluorides protect enamel from acid attack by hardening and help remineralise small enamel damage. The cleaning bodies help to clean the teeth. Today, it is predominantly silica, ie silica, which is available in different degrees of hardness. Foam-forming substances, such as surfactants, dissolve the plaque and, thanks to their foaming effect, make cleaning easier. However, it should not be overdosed, as it can cause damage to the gums. Medical toothpastes also contain ingredients that not only prevent tooth decay, but also gum disease. Bacteria inhibiting substances prevent inflammation or support wound healing. The excipients ensure that the pasta does not dry up, remains stable and the ingredients do not react chemically. There are also taste- correcting agents like menthol, which also make brushing more pleasant.

For children there are special toothpastes, because they have a different taste sensation. The toothpastes for adults appear too sharp for the children and are therefore rejected by them. It has therefore added fruit flavor and made the paste sweet, of course, not with sugar, but with sugar substitutes. In addition, it has to be taken into account that children often receive fluoride tablets, so the fluoride concentration in children's toothpastes is lower. Also because they swallow a lot more of the toothpaste than adults.

floss

The cleaning of the interdental spaces is difficult with the toothbrush. For this purpose, the dental floss was developed. With it, the interdental spaces can be cleaned well from coverings. The floss is waxed or unwaxed, as well as flossing with fluoride. What you take is up to you, everyone fulfills their purpose. In the trade different dental floss holders are offered. This should facilitate the application, especially in the posterior regions of the oral cavity. Each of these holders has its advantages and disadvantages, but unfortunately there is no such thing as an optimal solution.

toothpicks

The toothpicks / toothpicks offered by the industry today usually consist of plastic. They also serve to clean the interdental spaces and remove food debris. Above all, it is important that they are not pointed, but rounded at the tip, in order to avoid injuries of the gums. For this reason, the wooden toothpicks offered in some restaurants must be discarded because they can cause injuries through their pointed ends.

Interdental brushes

These brushes contain only a single tuft of bristles. They should also serve as dental floss and dental wood for cleaning the interdental spaces. They are particularly useful in bridge constructions as they can also clean the areas that are difficult to reach with the toothbrush. This also applies to implant-supported fixed prostheses.

Plaque coloring tablets

With the staining tablets you can stain the otherwise difficult to see dental plaque and make it visible. This is especially impressive when done after brushing. The application is especially popular with children.

Mundduschen

The oral irrigator is no substitute for brushing your teeth. So you can not replace the toothbrush. But it is suitable to remove food particles from the interdental spaces. Also, the oral irrigator may be supplemented with disinfectants or antiseptics such as chlorhexidine digluconate. Dental plaque can not be removed with the oral irrigator. For more information on this topic, see Oral Irrigator

mouthwash

First of all, mouthwash should create a feeling of freshness in the oral cavity. If it is accompanied by medicinally active substances, they can also be used to treat inflammatory gum disease, by no means can they remove dental plaque.

Tooth Gel

Another product that can support the tooth and gums are the so-called tooth gels. They have different areas of application and are used, for example, for the relief of pain in exposed tooth necks or the prevention of tooth decay. Even with discomfort during the tooth, dental gels can help.

Orozyme dental care gel

Orozyme Dental Care Gel is a product specially formulated for dog and cat oral hygiene that balances the microflora of the teeth and protects the animal against tooth and soft tissue diseases. Peroxidase, an enzyme found in the Orozyme Tooth Gel, can dissolve plaques and prevent tartar. Furthermore, coarser particles in the gel cause an erosive, smoothing effect on the teeth. The gel should be applied daily to the oral cavity of the dog or cat, preferably after the last meal in the evening, while the weight of the animal determines the amount that can be applied. The application alone is sufficient, a mechanical training, for example, with a toothbrush is not necessary. An ingredient ensures that the gel does not enter the digestive tract immediately and remains in the oral cavity for an extended period of time for optimal results. Veterinarians recommend Orozyme tooth gel primarily as a dental care product for dogs or cats. An application in humans is not indicated and would harm the oral flora. The natural bacteria in the oral cavity of cat and dog are different from those of humans, which is why the ingredients, which are specially adapted to the animal's oral flora, can cause damage to human use.

chewing gum

Plaque can not remove chewing gum. By chewing, however, the salivary secretion is stimulated, which has a certain effect on the remineralization by its calcium content. If you use chewing gum, you should make sure that it contains no xylitol sugar.

Does the toothbrush need to be disinfected?

After brushing, rinse the toothbrush with water to clean it sufficiently. Since most bacteria do not multiply in a dry environment, germs are less likely to settle there after drying the toothbrush. Therefore, it is not necessary to disinfect the toothbrush. Furthermore, the contact of the mucous membrane with disinfectant would be detrimental because the high alcohol concentration would dry out the mucous membrane and alter the pH. It makes more sense to replace the toothbrush every two to three months, depending on the state of use, to ensure optimal oral hygiene.

How often should the toothbrush be changed?

The regular replacement of the toothbrush or the plug-in head with electric brushes is important in order to maintain the cleaning ability and to achieve consistently good cleaning results. It should be based on the rule of thumb to replace the toothbrush about every two to three months, since it is worn out after this period. The intervals may be shorter in some patients, for example, if they exercise more pressure while brushing and therefore the toothbrush wears faster. The bristles are then frayed, which can irritate the gums when brushing. Studies show that when worn out, the cleaning function is no longer optimal and thus remain bacteria after brushing teeth and gums. These can cause tooth decay and gingivitis. Furthermore, there are models, both manual toothbrushes and electric toothbrushes, in which the color of the brush head changes and is thus signaled that an exchange is necessary.

Gum pain during care - causes and treatment

One reason for pain when brushing your teeth can be a too powerful brushing behavior. Too much effort will constantly irritate the gums. There are small mechanical injuries that hurt when brushing your teeth. To prevent this problem, use an electric toothbrush with a pressure sensor, an ultrasonic toothbrush or a soft manual toothbrush. Furthermore, gingivitis also causes unpleasant discomfort when brushing your teeth. This is likely when the gums are red, swollen and sensitive to pressure. After the inflammation subsided, the symptoms of tooth brushing should disappear. Pain while brushing your teeth also occurs with burnt or mechanically injured mucous membranes, for example due to very hot or spicy foods. After the defects heal, the pain subsides. Furthermore, carious teeth can cause discomfort in daily oral hygiene, which can only be alleviated by a filling therapy. Tooth root inflammation can trigger pressure pain when brushing teeth, which are also eliminated only by a dental therapy, in this case a root canal treatment.

Dental care for gingivitis

Since gingivitis has a bacterial cause in the majority of cases, thorough cleansing and good oral hygiene are essential for recovery. Two to three brushings a day are necessary to remove the bacterial deposits from the teeth. The gums and teeth must be thoroughly cleaned, even if the contact with the toothbrush is painful. The sole brushing is not enough, however, because the swollen gums cause "loopholes" which the toothbrush can not reach. For these so-called pseudo pockets, floss or interdental brushes must be used so that all food remains between the teeth and under the swollen gums are removed and thus do not constitute a breeding ground for bacteria.

Swollen gums - what to do?

Swollen gums can have multiple causes. Swelling of the entire gums is usually due to gingivitis, a gingivitis. This may have been caused by bacteria, so that a thorough oral hygiene and a supportive two-week application of an antiseptic mouthwash solution is recommended. Periodontitis, a generalized inflammation of the periodontium, can also cause swollen gums. In this case, only a targeted therapy by the dentist helps, which cleans all gum pockets and, if necessary, with an antibiotic therapy, the bacteria additionally fights. Gingival swelling (so-called gingival hyperplasia) can also be a side effect of certain groups of drugs. Localized swelling may be due to tooth root inflammation or cysts on the gums. Therapeutically, a cyst can be surgically opened by a dentist or oral surgeon so that the inflammatory secretion can proceed, or the entire cyst can be removed. In general, it is advisable for patients with swollen gums to gargle with chlorhexidine-containing rinses, so that no bacteria can accumulate within the oral cavity. If the swelling does not resolve after two to three days, the dentist must be consulted.

Burned gums - What to do?

As an immediate measure after burning the palate or the cheek, the cooling applies. It is best to rinse directly with cold water or - if present - to suck ice cubes. Furthermore, dairy products are recommended, which neutralize even with very spicy foods. The latter cause small microburning and are comparable to localized combustion. Therefore, in the first days after burning, to abstain from spicy foods, as these would aggravate the complaints. Hot drinks or food should be avoided as well as acidic foods in the first time of healing, so as not to provoke subsequent irritation of the already wounded area. The sufferer should only eat lukewarm food and can resort to home remedies to promote wound healing.
This includes regular rinsing with diluted chamomile extract or sage to calm the affected area. Regular rinsing is important so that bacteria do not attach themselves to the wounded area and infect them. Therefore, antibacterial mouthwashes are useful to promote healing and protect against wound healing disorder due to infection. Severe burns with massive blistering, severe pain and swelling should be evaluated and treated by a dentist. As a guideline, slight burns due to the good ability to regenerate the oral mucosa should be restored within one week. Deeper burns may take longer to heal. With injuries of the tongue and the taste buds or of nerves missing emotional feelings and missing taste sensation are possible. The regeneration is only conditionally possible, depending on the extent of the injury.

Care of periodontal pockets

Depending on the depth, existing periodontal pockets are only difficult for the affected person or can not be cleaned at all. Bacterial inflammation produces localized or generalized pockets. The gums are not firmly adhered to the tooth root, but loose, so that a gap is created by the bacteria attach themselves. The periodontal pockets are not only a loophole for bacteria, but also for food remains, which remain a breeding ground for further bacterial growth. Minimal inflammation and periodontal pockets are self-cleaning with dental floss and interdental brushes. This may initially lead to increased bleeding, but there is a rapid improvement. In addition, a beneficial use of mouthwashes with chlorhexidine digluconate is advisable, which can accelerate the decline in gingivitis. Deep gum pockets can only be reached by the dentist. He can clean and disinfect them with hydrogen peroxide or saline at depth to eliminate the bacteria. In order to relieve the inflammation, a cortisone-containing ointment is also applied in the bag, which inhibits the immune response of the body and thus relieves the inflammatory symptoms.

What can I do for gum decline?

Recession of gums, medically referred to as recession, is often self-inflicted by faulty dental care. The most common reason for recessions is to brush your teeth too hard. By a wrong scrubbing motion and too much effort, the gums are irritated and retracts. This phenomenon occurs primarily in the cervical region, where the gums are very thin. In particular, patients are affected by orthodontic treatment because the position of the teeth makes the gums of these patients thin and sensitive.
As a countermeasure, a soft toothbrush and the acclimation of a gentle toothbrushing technique help in the predominantly from "red to white" is cleaned, so that the gums are not too much pressure. Furthermore, an electric toothbrush with pressure sensor can help to learn to brush with less pressure. The toothbrush stops immediately or lights up when too much force is used. However, these measures only serve to prevent the progression of the recession. There is no way to reverse the gum retreat.
The only therapy that can cover the defect is a surgical crown extension. Here, the gum drop is covered by a connective tissue graft from the patient's palate. After a healing period of one to two weeks, the gums are reconstructed, but care should then be taken to gently brush their teeth so that the graft heals well and does not retract as well. If a recession has occurred due to a tooth displacement, only an orthodontic movement will help in the original position. It can be stimulated by the movement of the tooth, the gums to form new cells and to multiply slightly. In the majority of cases, however, an additional connective tissue graft will be necessary to achieve an aesthetically pleasing and high-quality result.

Home remedy for gum decline

In gum recession or so-called recession, symptoms of hypersensitive areas occur with thermal stimuli that make eating cold food unbearable. There are no home remedies that can bring the retracted gums back to their original location. This is possible in the dental office only by surgical connective tissue grafts. However, to alleviate the symptoms, home remedies can help. Clove oil, sage and chamomile as a diluted rinse or tincture can temporarily reduce discomfort, but no home remedy will help in the long run. The cause of the pain is open dentinal canals (dentine channels), which are usually covered by the gums. By their decline, they are free and can only be less sensitive by a blockade. This can only be achieved with the dentist by means of sealing preparations, which closes the dentinal tubules, so that stimuli are passed on worse. In the long term, however, this protective layer also wears off, so that only a surgical procedure leads to freedom from symptoms as a permanent solution.

Dental care for the baby

It is necessary to clean your child's teeth twice a day, starting at the age of about 6 months, when the first baby tooth breaks through. In addition, there are special dental care sets for babies, which teach you to brush your teeth slowly. This includes special toothbrushes with soft nubs on which the babies can chew if the gums are tender when teething. The initial toothbrushes slowly lead the babies to brush their teeth and the baby can playfully learn the ritual of brushing teeth. The initial toothbrushes are so soft that the baby can not hurt themselves. Furthermore, a neutral-tasting toothpaste should be used especially for babies, so that an unpleasant taste can not adversely affect the child. A thorough re-cleaning by the parents is essential in the dental care of babies, to prevent bad breath in the baby and bacterial plaque formation.

Dental care at the child

At the age of two and a half years, the complete deciduous dentition is present in toddlers. Starting with the first baby tooth, brushing twice a day is a must. At the beginning, the parents have to clean up, since the toddler learns the thorough tooth cleaning only gradually. The older the child, the more independent it becomes. Only from the age of about 8 years is the child capable of independent dental care. Before that, it is advisable that the parents check or, if necessary, clean up.
It can be used both a normal children's toothbrush and an electric toothbrush for children. For the deciduous dentition there are special toothpastes with lower fluoride concentration. From the onset of permanent teeth between the ages of six and twelve, a conventional toothpaste with a fluoride content of 1450 ppm may be used. It is also important to use a higher concentration fluoride gel once a week to protect the hard tooth substance and to prevent tooth decay. The use of dental floss is advisable from the onset of permanent teeth to optimally clean the interdental spaces. If flossing is too difficult, use interdental brushes. In addition to daily oral hygiene, the child should undergo twice-yearly dental check-ups to internalize proper brushing with professional support.

Dental care with fixed braces

In the case of fixed braces, oral hygiene is limited and made more difficult by the orthodontic appliance. In order to clean all areas within the oral cavity optimally, therefore, special tools are required. Nevertheless, the basis of dental care is the mechanical cleaning with a toothbrush. The cleaning is simplified by electric toothbrushes and especially by ultrasonic toothbrushes and specially suitable toothpastes. Their particles are transported by the vibrations of the toothbrush in the smallest angle, which are unattainable with a conventional toothbrush. The sole cleaning with a toothbrush is not enough in the presence of a fixed braces. Areas under the wire or brackets should be cleaned using dental floss and interdental brushes. There is no need to buy special interdental brushes for braces, the traditional ones in a small size are quite sufficient. In addition to these daily cleaning methods, a weekly fluoridation with a gel product is advisable to protect the teeth from caries by remineralization. The fluorides and salts can be absorbed into the enamel and strengthen the hard tooth substance. In addition to fluoridation, a mouthwash solution can also be used regularly to balance the oral flora and promote oral hygiene. Care should be taken to ensure a low concentration (0.05%) of the active ingredient chlorhexidine digluconate, which sustainably promotes oral health and also protects against caries and periodontal diseases.

Care for a gum cyst

A gum cyst needs to be surgically opened to remove the secretion. In advance, the person concerned should take care to chew soft food on the unaffected side, so that little leftovers have the chance to settle in the region. After the unloading incision either a so-called cystostomy follows, in which the secretion is discharged, or a cystectomy, in which the complete cyst is surgically removed. Thereafter, the patient should cool the area from the outside, so that the inflammation fades faster and no strong swelling develops. Mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine digluconate may also help to remove the bacteria in the oral cavity and restore a healthy oral flora. Despite the procedure, the teeth must be cleaned, but only very carefully in the affected region. However, the area that has been sutured should not be irritated with the toothbrush.

Which dental care sets are recommended?

Dental care kits are particularly recommended as special baby education kits to help the child slowly get to a proper oral hygiene. Dabei erlernen die Babys nach und nach den Umgang mit Zahnbürste und Zahnpasta, was eine gute Mundhygiene von Anfang an entwickelt und fördert. Zahnpflegesets für Erwachsene sollten eine professionelle Zahnreinigung für zu Hause ermöglichen. Die Grundausstattung basiert auf einer Ultraschallzahnbürste mit verschiedenen Programmen und Aufsätzen für Zunge, Zwischenräume und einer Munddusche. Diese Zahnpflegesets beinhalten alles, was für eine gründliche Mundhygiene benötigt wird und sind daher empfehlenswert, aber kein Muss. Weiterhin kann das Set eine professionelle Zahnreinigung beim Zahnarzt nicht ersetzen, da den eigenen Fähigkeiten im Vergleich zu den Möglichkeiten einer Fachkraft Grenzen gesetzt sind.

Weißes Zahnfleisch - was tun?

Weiß verfärbtes Zahnfleisch kann multifaktoriell bedingt sein. Punktuelle weißliche Stellen am Zahnfleisch können auf eine Minderversorgung hindeuten. Das entsprechende Areal wird beispielsweise durch Rauchen oder Druck (zB durch eine zu lange Krone) schlecht durchblutet und kann schlimmstenfalls absterben, da es nicht mit Nährstoffen versorgt wird. Großflächigere weiße, nicht abwischbare Verfärbungen können für eine Leukoplakie oder eine Systemerkrankung sprechen. Eine Leukoplakie stellt eine Verhornungsstörung der Mundschleimhaut dar. Verschiedene Systemerkrankungen können weißliche Veränderungen der Mundschleimhaut verursachen.

Zahnfleisch eitert - was tun?

Wenn Eiter aus dem Zahnfleisch tritt, ist unverzüglich ein Zahnarzt aufzusuchen. Eiterbildung spricht meist für eine länger bestehende Entzündung oder einen Abszess am Zahn (eine abgekapselte Eiteransammlung), die zahnärztlich versorgt werden müssen. Eiter besteht aus abgestorbenen weißen Blutkörperchen, die normalerweise für die Abwehrreaktion entscheidend sind und die Entzündung bekämpfen. Um die Symptome wie Schmerzen und Spannungsgefühl zu lindern, muss der Eiter abgelassen werden. Neben eines Entlastungsschnittes und antibakteriellen Spülungen (zB Chlorhexamed® forte) setzt der Zahnarzt oder Oralchirurg gegebenenfalls unterstützend ein Antibiotikum ein, um die Ausbreitung der Infektion zu verhindern und die Bakterien schneller abzutöten. Generell ist schnelles Handeln im Falle von Eiterbildung angezeigt. Bei zu langem Abwarten besteht das Risiko, dass sich die Bakterien von der Entzündung im Mundraum in den Blutkreislauf gelangen und eine lebensbedrohliche Blutvergiftung (Sepsis) auslösen.

Summary

Für die tägliche Zahnpflege gibt es eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Hilfsmittel. Sicher wird nicht jeder alle benutzen, sondern diejenigen auswählen, die ihm am meisten zusagen. Unerlässlich ist jedoch die Zahnbürste und die Zahnpasta sowie geeignetes Instrumentarium zur Reinigung der Zahnzwischenräume. Die Zahnpasta muss Fluorid enthalten, der wichtigsten Vorbeugung vor Karies.

Proper Oral Hygiene and Dental Care (December 2019).


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