The term "maxillary sinusitis " (lat. Sinusitis maxillaris ) is understood in the dental jargon as the spread of inflammatory processes in the area of the paranasal sinuses of the upper jaw. The sinusitis can be both acute and chronic.
Moreover, one differentiates between one-sided antritis and the form of this inflammatory disease, which affects both sides of the maxilla. The affected patients feel in most cases pain and / or a strong feeling of pressure in the upper cheek areas.
As a rule, such an antritis, regardless of whether it occurs unilaterally or bilaterally, directly from a prolonged respiratory infection with cough and runny nose. Inflammations in the area of the paranasal sinuses are among the most common secondary diseases that can occur in the course of a cold. However, the development of antritis may have other causes. Symptoms of sinusitis in general and of sinusitis in particular are headache, pressure around the cheeks, fever, fatigue and toothache.
One-sided maxillary sinus infection can occur as a result of a long-lasting respiratory tract infection with coughing and runny nose. In the course of the persistent irritation of the nasal mucous membranes there are in many cases localized mucosal swelling and narrowing of the outflow tracts of the nasal secretion.
In this way, bacteria and other pathogens can easily migrate from the nose into the paranasal sinuses (for example into the maxillary sinus) and provoke inflammatory responses.
Patients suffering from unilateral sinusitis may also experience a general outflow nasal discharge due to non-inflammatory narrowing of the drainage pathways. In addition to the typical cold, inflammatory processes in the antrum can also have completely different causes. In this context, it should be noted that the roots of the upper molars of the upper jaw extend far into the maxillary sinus in many people.
For this reason, carious defects or root tip inflammations of these teeth may serve as pathways to pathogens in the antrum.
The consequence is in most cases unilateral antritis. In addition, a dental treatment can even lead to the development of antritis unilaterally (so-called iatrogenic cause ). Especially with tooth extractions (the pulling of a tooth) of molars of the upper jaw, it can lead to an opening of the antrum due to the long tooth roots.
If this opening is now not discovered by the treating dentist, there is an artificially created, direct connection between the heavily bacteria-colonized oral cavity and the antrum.
As a result, pathogens, especially bacteria, can migrate into the maxillary sinus, multiply unhindered and damage the tissue in the long term. Unilateral sinusitis is often the result.
In case of heavy infestation and / or failure to take appropriate therapy, the inflammatory processes may also spread to the rest of the paranasal sinuses.
Patients suffering from unilateral sinusitis have multiple symptoms. In cases of infection-related forms, a cold or at least an increased discharge of nasal secretions usually occurs.
In addition, most sufferers describe a strong feeling of pressure in the upper cheek area, which is sometimes perceived as pain. Also, the occurrence of headache is not uncommon in the presence of unilateral antritis.
Due to the already described close proximity between the antrum and the molars of the upper jaw, toothache may well occur in the case of such a disease. In addition, common signs of infection, such as fever and fatigue, are symptoms that many patients with antritis suffer from. In addition, in the course of an antritis, unilaterally in many affected patients inflammatory irritations in the area of the eye occur, a marked decrease in the sense of smell and taste and / or purulent discharge from the nose.
Since such a disease is provoked in almost all cases by bacterial pathogens, the therapy is generally carried out with the help of an antibiotic. In some cases, rinsing of the nose, nasal and eye drops to effectively relieve the effects of the inflammatory disease. In severe pain, the affected patients can also take painkillers.