In the following, the developmental stages of a newborn in the first year of life are to be outlined as an example. The development of a newborn is very individual and often different in many aspects from the same age baby. Some children speak very early, but learn to walk relatively late. For others it is the other way round. Some children crawl long before they can walk. Other children go straight from "seals" to running.
Do not be confused by the development steps described below. There is no single "standard" for the course of neonatal development. If you have questions or uncertainties, your pediatrician is the right person to contact.
The baby looks at faces more closely after birth. Furthermore, he can usually reciprocate a smiling smile and begins to smile spontaneously in the course of the first two months.
In the first two months, the infant should respond to and perceive sounds. He also makes nonspecific sounds. But that does not mean screaming. In the course of the baby then begins to laugh and squeak.
Shortly after birth, the baby already has the ability to track moving objects with his eyes. First, this is better when moving the objects towards the nose (eyes move towards the nose). This works better over time, so you can see that the movement of the eyes in the other directions (up, down, outside) improves.
Even after the first month, you can also observe that the baby folds his hands together (a kind of "clapping").
After birth, the infant can lift the head slightly in the prone position. This lifting is initially short-lived, but the height of the lift increases during the first two months. In addition, some children can hold their heads while sitting between the first and second month of life.
Social contact, or interaction with the non-verbal environment, includes observing and looking at faces, responding to a smile and the child's spontaneous smile until the third month of life.
The development of the language differs only insignificantly from the first 9 weeks of life until the end of the third month of life. From time to time, the infant should laugh, utter "quit" and other sounds, and respond to the sounds it makes.
By the end of the third month of life, the infant's eyes should be mobile in all directions (when tracking an object). He should occasionally clap his hands together and try to touch or grasp an object he has been given.
In addition to the learned lifting of the head in prone position, which should be getting better by strengthening the muscles, between the second and third month of life the baby starts to lean on the forearms from prone to back.
In addition to the previously acquired skills (up to the third month), between the third and fourth month, the baby begins to show, in the event of the removal of a given toy, that he does not like it. In addition, infants at this age often show behavior that they want to reach for objects that are out of their reach.
The previous laughter, squeaking and the dispensing of unspecific lutes, we are now supplemented by the fact that now turns the infant to certain voices. This can be seen, for example, in the baby's response when standing next to the changing table and not in the immediate field of vision of the baby.
The learned until the third month of life is supplemented by the closer consideration of objects and persons. The infant begins to long for toys and watches the movements of other persons or objects. While sitting, he can now also reach for things in parallel through the improved coordination (rounder motion sequences) and then possibly transfer these objects from one hand to the other.
By the sixth month, most babies manage to turn independently around their own body axis and pull themselves into the sitting position by holding onto solid objects. In addition, the leg muscles have already strengthened so that the baby's legs can carry at least a part of the body weight itself. (Standing or running are atypical at this time and not recommended because of the not yet mature bones and joint structures).
Already at the beginning of the sixth month of life, the baby begins to be more reserved and "shy" towards unknown persons or to be afraid. This is a natural development process. In addition, the baby manages to continue performing the skills learned or acquired until the age of six months.
Between the sixth and seventh months of life, the fine motor skills of the baby, ie the ability to perform more precise movements, develop further. The so-called thumb-finger grip is a typical sign of this. In doing so, the baby extends his index finger and thumb while gripping and grabs the other three fingers.
The previously acquired skills are now possibly supplemented by sitting without help, as well as standing with holding.
Social development up to the eighth month of life differs little from the previous development. Only at the beginning of the eighth month of life do the babies make any significant progress in development.
Even the linguistic development hardly changes in comparison to the one up to the seventh month of life.
In addition to the thumb-finger-grip is now added that the child is able to beat objects such as building blocks together.
So far, the baby could stand alone if it has held on. The sole getting up was so far rather untypical. Now the baby begins to pull objects up to get to a standstill. In addition, the baby can now manage to sit up by itself.
At this age one can observe with the babies that they clap in addition to the already skilled more in the hands and turn off and / or.
At this age, there are no significant changes to the development progress made to date.
The gripping of the child changes now a bit. The previous thumb-finger-grip is now often replaced by the so-called tweezers handle. This means the increased grip with forefinger and thumb.
Now that the baby is able to stand on her own, the babies are now increasingly walking along furniture. The piece of furniture (or similar) serves as a support, since free standing is often not possible.
At the age of nine to ten months one can observe that the children are already starting to play with another person with a ball or to interact differently. In addition, the child can already express wishes and needs without screaming.
So far it has only been possible for babies to say "mom" or "daddy" undirectedly. From now on, it is also more frequently observed that the babies start to purposefully say to mother "Mama" and father "Daddy".
As for the fine motor skills of the baby at this time, no further major milestones are expected until the beginning of the first year of life. Some babies are now able to drink from a cup.
By running, in which the babies have supported themselves on furniture or other objects, the muscles and bones have strengthened so much that many babies from now on, even for a brief moment free.
In essence, further new social development progress can only be observed after the first birthday. However, this is always dependent on the previous individual development of the baby.
Addressing parents with "mom" or "dad" works better, and now and then, babies of that age can form "two-word phrases" that do not contain the words "mom" or "daddy."
Here, too, new development progress can often only be noticed after the first birthday. Nevertheless, here too, it is always dependent on the past development when and to what extent new changes in the development show.
Most children can not stand independently at the age of 11 months. In some children, however, can be seen significant progress in the support and maintenance work of the trunk.