Mosquito bites can be very uncomfortable. As a rule, mosquito bites in Germany bring no tormenting itching complications. They lead to redness and itchy swelling, which, however, after a few days, swell again. The mosquito transmits certain proteins by means of their saliva during human lancing and sucking. It does that to prevent the blood from clotting. These proteins cause a minor allergic reaction in humans, causing redness, swelling and itching.
There are typically so-called wheals. These are button-like elevations of the human skin, which occur due to the release of histamine in allergic reactions. In addition, mosquito bites are more or less painful. It depends on whether and how much the puncture violates sensitive pain fibers and how one feels the pain subjectively. The itching can be alleviated by antihistamines or by heating the puncture site. The heating leads to a destruction of the proteins and prevents the allergic reaction. In Germany, there are actually no mosquitoes that transmit dangerous diseases. When traveling abroad, however, one should know that it may come under certain circumstances to a disease transmission by mosquitoes.
Mosquito bites are generally harmless in Germany. They occur more frequently in summer and lead to mild allergic reactions, which are accompanied by itching and mild pain. However, inflammatory reactions and allergic immune responses are very different from human to human, and thus the effects of an insect bite on humans can be very different. However, as the native mosquitoes do not transmit any diseases, they are kept within limits. Nevertheless, there are people who show a stronger allergic or inflammatory reaction. This can manifest itself, for example, in very intense itching, circulatory problems or even diarrhea and nausea. In any case, you should consult a doctor who, if necessary, initiates treatment with cortisone or antihistamines. If it comes to shortness of breath, which is an extremely rare case, you must immediately see an ambulance. Similarly, you should go to the doctor with very large swelling in the face or neck. As with all wounds, contaminants can lead to inflammation. One should therefore refrain from scratching the mosquito bite bloody. This gives germs the opportunity to invade the wound and cause inflammation of the skin.
Anti-itching creams containing antihistamines help. They prevent an allergic reaction. In addition, cold compresses can relieve swelling. Since scratching a mosquito bite should be omitted. It provides pathogens so only a portal of entry into the body and favors inflammation. If the wound is already bloody and scratched, it is advisable to disinfect it and stick a plaster on it. This is the best way to prevent inflammation.
If a mosquito bite has become inflamed, in addition to severe itching, this is accompanied by marked redness around the puncture site and wheals (small skin swelling caused by an allergic reaction to penetrating proteins of the mosquito). Here, a low-dose cortisol cream can provide relief. Cortisone has an anti-inflammatory effect and reduces the allergic reaction of the body to the mosquito bite and thus the itching. Since the ointment is applied only locally to the skin, side effects of cortisone are not to be feared in this type of application.
However, you should be careful in places where the skin is very thin, such as in the eye or genital area. Since cortisone is absorbed more quickly because of the thinner layers of the skin, you should consult a doctor for complaints in these areas before the application and do not treat yourself. The same applies to older people and children, who also have a thinner skin.
It is also possible to take cortisone in inflamed mosquito bites in tablet form. This may be necessary, for example, when it comes to especially many inflamed stings on the skin. However, side effects of cortisone, such as a permanent increase in cortisol levels in the blood ( Cushing's syndrome ), can occur, especially if taken for a long time.
For inflamed mosquito bites, there are a number of home remedies whose use is recommended. To cool the affected area, you can put a conventional ice pack on it. A similar effect is also the human spit or high-percentage alcohol, which both cause a temporary cooling when evaporating. Cold cottage cheese also cools and additionally promotes the swelling.
In case of severe itching, the leaves of the ribwort plantain are used. This one puts on the puncture site and fixes the whole afterwards with a bandage or the like. To disinfect the puncture site in addition, a cut onion, a few minutes placed on the skin, can be used. It also has anti-inflammatory effects; The same applies to the application of honey.
Finally, there is a method that uses heat to destroy the alien proteins of the mosquito, which makes the itching disappear. The most common application is with a spoon that is heated above 40 ° C and then pressed on the puncture site for a few minutes. However, this must be done very carefully, so that no skin burns.
As already mentioned, mosquito bites in Germany do not cause any major complications. This is because the mosquitoes in this country do not transmit pathogens. Above all, travelers who spend more time abroad should know about the domestic insects and the possible diseases that can be transmitted.
Prominent examples include malaria, which is found mainly in Africa, dengue fever, yellow fever, and worm fever such as filariosis. In principle, these pathogens tend to lead to inflammation and immune reactions at the injection site. First and foremost, however, they bring with them other problems than that. They usually lead to feverish diseases that absolutely require treatment.
In Europe, there is also a lesser-known virus, the so-called Sindbis virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. The spread is largely limited to Scandinavia and Russia. It triggers feverish illnesses, which, however, are accompanied by rashes and joint pain. In Germany too, the risk of infection is increasing due to climate change.
Inflamed mosquito bites can be very unpleasant for a child due to the frequent itching. Treatment can be done in several ways. First, one should try to prevent the child from scratching excessively on the affected area of the skin, as scratched bites risk being infected with pathogens. To relieve the itching, it helps to cool the puncture site, for example with a cold pack. This can also take the form of cooling gels or ointments, which are ideally stored in the refrigerator before use.
If there is additional redness, swelling or pain, it is also possible to use ointments or gels that work against the histamine causing the symptoms ( antihistamines ). Low dose cortisone ointment is also used in children with inflamed mosquito bites. However, due to the thinner skin of the child compared to adults, cortisone may penetrate tissue and bloodstream more quickly, so use of cortisone-containing ointment should only be considered if other agents are not effective enough or cause several severe discomforts Stitches exist.
Inflammated mosquito bites in pregnant women are generally no danger to mother and child in Germany, as the mosquitoes in this country do not transmit dangerous diseases. However, when treating sting, it should be noted that there is no information for pregnant women about ointments or gels, and especially those containing antihistaminic agents, as no medical studies are performed on pregnant women. Therefore, it is advisable to limit yourself to an inflamed mosquito bite during pregnancy to cool it simply with a cold pack or ice pack to counteract the annoying itching. Also harmless is the application of a so-called stab healer, with which the alien proteins of the mosquito are decomposed by heat and the itching with it decreases. In addition, proven home remedies such as onion, Quarkwickel or ribwort can also be used.
An exception to the harmlessness of inflamed mosquito bites during pregnancy is a stay abroad. Depending on the destination, the expectant mother should be informed exactly about the diseases transmitted there by mosquitoes and the possible precautionary measures.
Overall, mosquito bites are very harmless in Germany. At best, there may be minor allergic reactions or mild inflammation at the site of the puncture associated with redness and wheals. In the context of these inflammatory and allergic reactions, there is more or less intense itching. Cooling and antihistamines can provide relief.
Scratching a mosquito bite can cause inflammation, as germs can then accumulate in the open wound. In particular, bloody mosquito bites should be disinfected locally and covered with a plaster.
On other continents mosquitoes are found, which cause severe illnesses. Here is an inflammation of the mosquito bite rather secondary. These diseases are usually feverish diseases, such as malaria, and occur more frequently in warmer climates. Travelers traveling to, for example, Africa or Asia should first be fully aware of the health risks.
In general, however, should an insect bite ignite or cause reactions, such as respiratory or circulatory problems, this is a reason to see a doctor immediately.