Diseases of the throat and mouth

There are a large number of diseases that can manifest in the throat and mouth. The causes of this are also diverse, especially infections with bacteria, viruses or fungi lead to discomfort in the mouth and throat.
In addition to inflammation, changes in the tissue are also possible diseases of the pharynx. The following is a selection of the most common diseases of the mouth and throat.

Classification of diseases in the mouth and throat

The following are the most common diseases of the mouth and throat divided into:

  1. Disease in the mouth
  2. Diseases of the throat and throat
  3. Diseases of the vocal cords
  4. Diseases of the larynx
  5. Other diseases
  6. Symptoms in the throat and mouth

Oral disorders

Inflammation on the palate

The most common cause of inflammation of the palate is an oral mucosal inflammation, which may occur, for example, after injury from braces. Sharp edges cause lesions in the oral mucosa, in which bacteria store and thus trigger the inflammation. Other possible causes include burning with hot food or drinks, as well as infection with viruses and fungi.

Tonsillitis / tonsillitis

The tonsillitis is an inflammation of the palatine tonsils ( tonsils ). This is triggered by viruses or bacteria.
In most cases, it is the pathogen "Streptococcus type A". This is transmitted especially during the cold period by means of droplet infection.
The person suffering from sore throat, fever and general malaise. The palatine tonsils are swollen and red. Tonsillar tonsillitis is the stronger form of tonsillitis.

Pfeiffer's glandular fever

The so-called Pfeiffer's glandular fever causes an infection with the Epstein Barr virus.
Characteristic of the Pfeiffer's glandular fever are high fever, swollen lymph nodes and a significantly reduced general condition. Strong halic pain and moderate to severe dysphagia are also symptoms of the disease.
The treatment consists in symptomatic therapy and bed rest. In most cases, patients are so severely affected that they need to be on sick leave for several days or even weeks.


Almond abscesses are relatively rare compared to tonsillitis. An abscess is a cavity that has formed on the almond or next to the almond and that is filled with pus. Almond abscesses occur in the vast majority of cases in addition to a purulent tonsillitis.

Oral thrush

Under an oral thrush - also called candidosis - one understands an infection of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and pharynx with a certain type of fungus. In most cases it is the yeast fungus Candida albicans.

canker sores

The term "aphthae" refers to small inflamed bulges in the oral cavity, which are perceived by those affected as extremely disturbing and painful. Aphthae can occur singly or in different places in the mouth.
The whitish pits are covered with a film, a so-called fibrin coating and around the aphthae the oral mucosa is usually very red. As a rule, the aphthae heal on their own within two weeks.

Salivary gland inflammation

It is a very painful condition, usually caused by bacteria or viruses. However, salivary gland inflammation is often caused by the presence of salivary stones.
The inflammation usually occurs very suddenly and is accompanied by a, sometimes massive, swelling of the face and hardening of the diseased side.
Most commonly, the three major salivary glands are affected (hypoglycemic gland, mandibular gland, parotid gland).

Diseases of the throat and throat

Inflammation in the throat

A sore throat is when the pharyngeal mucous membranes are inflamed. Especially in the winter months, the sore throat often occurs in connection with colds.

Inflammation in the throat

Especially in children, the inflammation in the throat is one of the most common diseases. In most cases, the inflammatory processes occur in the area of ​​the pharyngeal mucosa due to a viral infection and / or as part of a flu infection.
In addition, the inflammation in the throat can also be caused by bacterial pathogens. Especially in affected children, the infection with bacteria from the group of so-called beta-hemolytic streptococci (Strep-A) plays a crucial role.

pharyngeal cancer

A pharyngeal carcinoma, also known as pharyngeal cancer, is a malignant tumor located in the head and neck area. In many cases, pharyngeal cancer is caused by the mucous membrane lining the pharynx. Venous cancer is mainly favored by external environmental factors, such as alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Often, pharyngeal cancer leads to symptoms or visible changes only in the late stages.
For more information, see our topic: Venom Crab

Disease of the vocal cords

Inflammation of the vocal cords

In the acute form is usually a descending infection of the upper respiratory tract (nose or throat), which spreads to the vocal cords. In most cases, viruses are the cause, but also an infection by bacteria is possible.
The most common pathogens are cold viruses (rhino or adenoviruses), influenza viruses (Haemophilus influenzae) or pneumococci ( Streptococcus pneumoniae ). Furthermore, a strong vocal load can lead to irritation of the vocal cords.

Recurrent palsy / vocal cord paralysis

Recurrent nerve palsy (vocal cord or vocal cord paralysis) refers to the weakness or failure of the laryngeal musculature and vocal cords as a result of damage to the vocal cord nerves ( recurrent laryngeal nerves ).
A unilateral recurrent nerve palsy arises due to the failure of the vocal cord on this site. This leads to limited flexibility of the vocal cord, which leads to a moderate hoarseness and a loss of volume in the voice in the affected patients.
In bilateral recurrent nerve palsy, ie a failure of the entire laryngeal musculature, there are stronger symptoms.

Illness of the larynx

Laryngeal pain

Typical symptom of a laryngeal disease and laryngeal pain is hoarseness. If it lasts longer than three days, a consultation by the Otolaryngologist is recommended.
Dry cough can also be caused by a throat disease. He expresses himself above all by a constant, unproductive cough.


Epiglottitis is a laryngeal inflammation. It is triggered by bacteria and in particular by the pathogen Haemophilus influenza type B (especially in children), by pneumococci and by S. aureus in adults. The danger of epiglottis is the impending relocation of the respiratory tract due to a strong swelling. The patients complain of severe sore throat, dysphagia or shortness of breath.
If an epiglottitis is suspected, a doctor or clinic should be consulted immediately.

Laryngitis / laryngitis

Laryngitis (laryngitis) is an inflammation of the larynx. The inflammation is triggered either by bacteria or viruses.
The first symptoms are dysphagia and hoarseness, including temporary loss of voice. Furthermore, it usually comes to a cough. Mostly, acute laryngitis is associated with a common cold.
A distinction is made between a laryngitis in which the larynx is inflamed by a glottitis in which the vocal cords are affected by the inflammation.


The Pseudokrupp is a laryngitis with laryngeal pain, which usually arises as an additional infection in nasal inflammation, sinusitis and pharyngitis.

Especially infants are affected, in whom the virus infection causes a swelling in the larynx and causes typical symptoms (symptoms) "barking" cough, hoarseness and shortness of breath.

Diphtheria / True Krupp

Due to the corresponding vaccination today is rather rare diphtheria. It is transmitted by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae and leads to severely reddened throat, sore throat and difficulty swallowing.
The cheek mucosa and tonsils are grayish white. The language is free. Furthermore, there is a deterioration of the general condition, fever and fatigue. In some cases diphtheria diseases can lead to life-threatening courses. The treatment consists of the physical protection and the symptomatic therapy of the forced antibiotic therapy.

Vocal cord nodules

The vocal cord nodules are considered to be the benign tumors of the larynx. They can occur at any age and cause a significant reduction in our voice and voice quality. The hoarseness and harsh voice are the main symptoms. The vocal cord nodules can be well treated by gentle voice treatment or by small surgical procedures.

laryngeal papillomatosis

Laryngeal papillomatosis is a benign tumor disease of the larynx and most of the vocal cords ( larynx = larynx). This leads to the formation of small, wart-like mucosal growths called papillomas. Laryngeal papillomatosis is triggered by the HP virus ( human papillomavirus ).
Laryngeal papillomatosis is usually well operable and treatable.

Laryngeal carcinoma / throat cancer

Furthermore, there are still malignant neoplasms of the neck. Here especially the laryngeal carcinoma should be mentioned. It is indeed a rare but quite aggressive neoplasm of the larynx. There are three types of laryngeal carcinoma, which differ from their location. Above all, excessive alcohol and cigarette consumption is responsible for new growth in this area.
First symptoms of laryngeal carcinoma is hoarseness, which is not associated with a cold and lasts longer than two weeks. In this case, an ENT specialist should definitely be consulted.

Infectious Diseases A-Z: Does your child have a sore throat? (February 2020).

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