Diseases of the hand

Around the hand exist a multiplicity of clinical pictures, which can have various causes. Restrictions in the hand can occur, for example, due to injury or age-related wear.
Here is an overview of the most common hand diseases and their causes.

Classification of wrist disorders

Below are the most common diseases of the hand divided into:

  1. Fractures of the hand
  2. Wear-related diseases of the hand
  3. Neurological diseases of the hand
  4. Congenital diseases of the hand
  5. Traumatic triggered diseases of the hand
  6. Inflammatory diseases of the hand

Breaks on the hand

Distal Radius Fracture - Wrist fracture

Wrist fracture is a fracture of the wrist-proximal end of the spine (one of the forearm bones).
It is the most common bone fracture occurring in humans. Usache is usually a fall in which the patient intercepts with his hands.

scaphoid fracture

The scaphoid fracture (Scaphoidfraktur) is the most common fracture in the area of ​​the carpal. The most common cause of fracture of the scaphoid bone (scaphoid bone) is a fall on the outstretched wrist.

The scaphoid fracture may be initially difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms are often very weak. In the absence of treatment, however, the fracture healing usually remains and develops a so-called scaphoid pseudarthrosis. This is a "false joint".

Wear-related diseases of the hand

finger osteoarthritis

Polyarthrosis involves wear on the middle joints of the fingers (Bouchard's arthrosis) or the joints of the fingers (Heberden's arthrosis) due to consumption of the cartilage layer in the joint. Arthrosis ultimately leads to narrowing of the joint space. This can lead to feelings of tension, problems in mobility and severe pain.

Thumb saddle osteoarthritis

The thumb saddle joint arthrosis ( rhizarthrosis ) is a wear (osteoarthritis) in the thumb saddle joint. This leads to the wear of the joint protecting cartilage layer.
The thumb saddle joint is located between the polygon bone ( Os trapezium ) and the first mid-beam bone.

Flicking finger

With the fasting finger, the flexor tendon becomes thickened as part of the strain on the hand. The tendons of the hand are connected to the bone by so-called ring ligaments. Their job is to keep tendons bent on the bone.
As the finger flexes and extends, the tendon passes under the hoop band. If the tendon thickens in front of the ring band, the ring band can only be overcome with increased force, but then quickly.

Neurological diseases of the hand

The carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is damage to the median nerve caused by trauma, inflammation, or degenerative changes, which in the long run leads to regression or wasting of the artery of the thumb.
Typically, nocturnal emotional disturbances of the first three fingers occur.

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • OP of a carpal tunnel syndrome

Congenital diseases of the hand

Syndactyly of the hand

A syndactyly of the hand is a bony or connective tissue connection of two fingers that lacks the space between the fingers.
The disease is one of the congenital malformations of the hand.

Traumatic triggered diseases of the hand

Scapholunate dissociation / SLD

In the case of a scapholunate dissociation / SLD, external trauma results in an injury to the ligaments in the carpal region between the scaphoid bone (Os scaphoidum, formerly the os naviculare) and the lunar bone (Os lunatum).
Typically, the disease is preceded by a fall on the outstretched wrist.

Dupuytren's disease

Dupuytren's disease is one of the so-called fibromatoses. More specifically, it comes to the benign, primarily painless, nodular and string-like proliferation of connective tissue of the hand. This leads to a stretching inhibition of the fingers, or even to the contractions of contractions of the little finger.
The most common locations are: hollow hand, ring finger, small finger, middle finger, rare thumb and index finger.
The cause of the disease probably lies in the genetic preload. An injury or fracture can then trigger the symptoms.

Sudeck's disease

Sudeck's disease is also called CRPS (complex regional pain syndrome). This leads to painful dystrophy (nutritional disorder) and atrophy (shrinkage) of the soft tissues (muscles, skin) and bones on the extremities with typical stadienhafte course.

Tear of the extensor tendon of the finger

The cause of the departure of the extensor tendon of the end member of the finger is often in sports accidents. The extensor tendon may tear out of the end member along with a piece of bone. Depending on the size of the torn bone fragment it comes to malpositions.
Immediately after the injury it is noticeable that the end limb of the finger hangs limply down.

Inflammatory diseases of the hand

Tendovaginitis - Tendonitis

Tendons represent the connection of the muscle to the bone. In places of great stress, they are enveloped by the so-called tendon sheaths. If it comes to an inflammation of these tendon sheaths one speaks of the tendonitis (Tendovaginitis).
Triggers can be overuse, for example due to too much computer work, or an infection.
Tendonitis causes pain in the affected area. These can spread along the course of the tendon and even radiate into the muscle. Externally, a redness and swelling can be seen.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints. The inflammation is directed against the inside of the joints.
The disease occurs not only on the hands, but also on the joints of the whole body. Initially, it manifests at first creeping through swelling and overheating of the joints, pain during pressure or movement and the so-called morning stiffness.


Osteomyelitis is a mostly chronic disease in which inflammation of the bone occurs. The inflammation can spread to the bone within the bone and also this attack.
The cause is usually an infection caused by a pathogen. This can occur especially after surgery or open fractures.

Dupuytren's Disease - Mayo Clinic (February 2020).

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