Diseases of the nose

The following is an overview and brief explanation of the most important diseases of the nose.
Diseases of the nose can be classified according to their occurrence in diseases of the outer and inner nose.

Classification of diseases in the nose

The following are the most common diseases in the nose divided into:

  1. Diseases & injuries of the external nose
  2. Diseases & injuries of the internal nose

Diseases & injuries of the external nose

broken nose

Due to the prominent position of the nose on the face, the nasal bone is a common place for fractures. This is usually done by dull force such as a blow to the nose. Symptoms of a nasal bone fracture are nose pain, nosebleeds and nasal swelling, which may be accompanied by nasal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually made by an X-ray. Most nasal bone fractures can be corrected without surgery.

Nasenscheidewandverkrümmung

A nasal septum is usually already present at birth, but can also be caused by an injury. The main symptom is a disturbed nasal breathing, which leads to sleep disorders and snoring, especially at night. The treatment of nasal septum curvature is an operative correction of the nasal septum. This is done by the ENT specialist.

Pain on the nasal bone

Pain on the nasal bone can have many causes. On the one hand it can come to a pain through a trauma, such as a blow to the nose. On the other hand, diseases of the inner nose, such as swelling of the nasal mucosa, can cause pain on the nasal bone.

Diseases & injuries of the internal nose

nosebleeds

Nosebleeds may have harmless causes such as a dry nose or taking blood-thinning medications. However, nosebleeds may also be a symptom of other diseases, such as high blood pressure or a tumor of the nasal mucosa. The therapy is primarily to stop the nosebleed. For this purpose, the upper body should be stored upright and the head bent forward and the nostrils pressed together for about 5 minutes. If this does not help, there is the possibility of nasal bleeding in the hospital, for example by a tamponade to breastfeed.

sniff

The commonly known cold is nothing but a mostly viral inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes. The typical symptoms are running of the nose, sneezing and a disability nasal breathing. Most of the time, no therapy is needed, as it comes within a week to a spontaneous healing. Supportive nasal sprays can be applied.

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is usually caused by viruses. The inflammation can affect all sinuses. The main symptoms are a purulent nasal secretion, a general malaise and a dull pressure pain over the affected paranasal sinus. Decongestant nasal drops can be used for therapy and, if necessary, an antibiotic can also be used.

Inflammation of the nose

An inflammation of the nose can occur in some diseases. First, the nasal mucosa may be inflamed. Furthermore, the skin in the area of ​​the nose can also inflame and lead to symptoms. The respective therapy depends on the underlying disease.

rhinitis

Nasal mucosal inflammations usually occur in the context of a cold and are usually caused by viruses. However, it can also have an allergic cause. Nasal irritation causes increased discharge of the nose, sneezing and nasal obstruction. Mostly there is no therapy for a simple nasal mucosal inflammation. Symptomatically, decongestant nasal sprays can be used.

adenoids

The polyps of the nose are swollen enlargements of the nasal mucosa. These can lead to a closure of the nasal passages above a certain size. Symptoms of polyps are pronounced mouth breathing due to nasal congestion, snoring and a nasal voice. The diagnosis of polyps is made by an ENT doctor. The treatment of choice is surgical removal of the polyps.

Nasenfurunkel

A nasal dryness is caused by the bacterial infection of a hair root in the nose. This is noticeable by pain and redness in this area. Depending on the severity of the furuncles this can be treated with an antibiotic ointment. In addition, attention should be paid to adequate hygiene and irritation of the nose should be avoided as far as possible.

Swollen nose / nasal mucosa

For a swollen nose, it must be distinguished whether the outer or inner nose is swollen. Swelling of the nose from the outside is usually due to a blow or other trauma. Swelling from the inside is usually a swelling of the nasal mucosa, which can be caused by various factors such as a viral infection. The therapy depends on the underlying cause of the swelling.

Stinknase

The stink nose is a degeneration of the nasal mucosa that occurs either spontaneously or after surgery or tumors of the nasal mucosa. Excessive use of nasal spray can also be a cause. The symptoms are purulent nasal secretion and an unpleasant nose odor, which, however, is not perceived by those affected. For therapy, some operations are available. However, these can alleviate the symptoms but promise no cure.

Illustration of the nose

Figure Nose: Sidewall of the right nasal cavity
  1. Upper turbinate -
    Concha nasi superior
  2. Upper nasal passage -
    Meatus nasi superior
  3. Middle turbinate -
    Concha nasi media
  4. Middle nasal passage -
    Meatus nasi medius
  5. Lower turbinate -
    Concha nasi inferior
  6. Lower nasal passage -
    Meatus nasi inferior
  7. Atrium of the nasal cavity -
    Vestibulum nasi
  8. Smelling threads - Fila olfactoria
  9. Olfactory bulb - Bulbus olfactorius
  10. Rear opening of the
    Nasal cavity - Choana
  11. Nasal Cavity - Cavitas nasi
  12. Throat roof almond -
    Tonsilla pharyngea
  13. Frontal sinus - sinus frontalis
  14. Sphenoid sinus -
    Sinus sphenoidalis
  15. Oral cavity - Cavitas oris
  16. Tongue - Lingua

Allergic Diseases of the Nose, Airways and Skin DVD Preview (December 2019).


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