Diseases of the elbow

Both in free citing and working, we do not manage without movement of the hands and (lower) arms. The elbow is centrally involved in these movements and can get sick in different ways. Sports injuries, inflammation or signs of wear and tear in old age are noticeable on the elbow and sometimes have a very restrictive effect in everyday life.
Here is an overview of the most common erblies of the elbow.

classification

The following are the most common diseases and injuries at the elbow broken down according to:

  1. Inflammation of the elbow
  2. Illnesses as a result of overwork or wear
  3. Injuries of the elbow
  4. Specific diseases of the elbow

Inflammation of the elbow

Housemaid's knee

Bursitis on the elbow (also called bursitis olecrani ) is a painful inflammatory condition of the joint, which results from incorrect loading. The main symptom is often a painful swelling, which is usually very sensitive to touch. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the clinical symptoms, the chances of recovery are very good with an adequate therapy.

Inflammation of the biceps tendon

As a rule, the long biceps tendon is affected by the inflammation. The inflammation leads to the deposition of calcium salts, which limits the movement of the biceps tendon. Certain physical activities can lead to inflammation of the biceps tendon. Professional athletes or people who do intensive sports are often affected. The diagnosis is made by the doctor and the therapy can be conservative and surgical.

arthritis

Arthritis describes the inflammation in the elbow joint. This may be infection or non-infection. In an infection-related arthritis, bacteria get into the elbow. Non-infectious arthritis, also referred to as rheumatoid arthritis, is a disease that is considered rheumatic.

Illnesses as a result of overwork or wear

Osteoarthritis in the elbow

The term arthrosis summarizes the group of chronic degenerative diseases. These are characterized in that the articular cartilage is worn, which can happen on the one hand in the context of natural wear and tear during the aging process and on the other hand by certain traumas. The therapy can be conservative and surgical.

tennis elbow

The tennis elbow is a pain syndrome in the area of ​​the origin of the hand and finger muscles at the bony outer approaches of the humerus. The main trigger is a permanent overuse of the forearm muscles caused by monotonous movements without adequate relief. Most tennis elbow heal with proper therapy, rarely runs the restriction chronic.

golfer's elbow

The so-called Golferellenbogen is a tendinitis of the flexors of the forearm muscles. Patients with golfer arches complain of pain on the inside of the elbow, which is caused by tendons that increase in the event of a fistula and flexion in the wrist. Most elbow pain radiates in the lower and / or upper arm, so that then the whole arm hurts. The therapy of the golfer's arm is usually conservative, only in rare cases surgery is performed.

mouse arm

The colloquial term "mouse arm" refers to the nonspecific clinical picture of the RSI syndrome (Repetitive Strain Injury, German: Repetitive strain injury). The term mouse arm hides various clinical pictures, such as pain or inflammation in the nerves, tendons and muscles of the shoulder, elbow and hand. Due to the mouse arm, the movements in the arm and hands are very painful and restricted due to overloading.

Injuries of the elbow

Torn ligament on the elbow

Movements that exceed the normal level can lead to overload injuries such as torn ligaments. These express themselves mainly through pain and swelling. When a ligament tears in the elbow, the elbow joint is usually dislocated. Torn ligaments in general should, if it is a sports injury, immediately take a break from exercise. In addition, fast cooling is important.

Elbow dislocated

Through falls or sports accidents you can stretch out the elbow joint, so that either no more movement in the joint or if then only very limited possible. In the adult, while the shoulder is more likely to dislocate, infants in particular are more likely to suffer from a dislocated elbow because the ligaments are even more elastic.

Specific diseases of the elbow

Morbus Panner

The disease known as Panner's disease is a bone necrosis that occurs in the region of the elbow joint. As a rule, especially children between the ages of 6 and 10 are affected who perform sports in which the elbow joint is heavily loaded.
The cause of this disease is a circulatory disturbance of the growth joint in the area of ​​the lower humerus or other bony structures of the elbow joint

Causes of pain in the elbow

Elbow pain can be caused by falls, inflammation of the joint or bursal.

Pain in the elbow can have a variety of causes.

Very often, pain occurs after trauma. Falls or accidents may cause muscle and ligaments to be pulled or otherwise injured, or fractures of the adjacent bones, such as the humerus and radius (or ulna ) of the forearm bones. Furthermore, dislocations (dislocations) of the elbow are very often the cause of acute pain.

Inflammation can be the cause of the pain if the elbow joint is permanently overstressed. Very often, the elbow-arcing tendons of the forearm extensor muscles and forearm flexor muscles - the tennis or golfer's elbow - ignite.

In addition to the tendons, inflammation of the bursa may also be the site of the pain.

In chronic pain in the elbow joint, which also occur in other small joints such as the finger joints, should also be thought of a rheumatism-related arthritis.

In addition to inflammation often arises in long-lasting over- or Fehlbelastung an arthritis in the elbow joint, which is characterized by wear and tear of cartilage. In contrast to the other causes of pain mentioned here, the pain occurs here after a long period of rest and improves with exercise.

In addition to the external assessment, testing the mobility and scanning the structures involved, a first suspected diagnosis can be made by describing the time of occurrence, the type and the localization of the pain. Other means such as X-rays, MRI, ultrasound or arthroscopy ( joint mirroring ) can complete the diagnosis.
But also blood tests can help, especially in the field of rheumatological diagnostics.

Elbow dislocated

An elbow dislocation is much less common than a dislocation of the shoulder. It often occurs with external force, such as falling on the outstretched or slightly pronated (palm is turned down) arm.

Very often a dislocation is accompanied by accompanying injuries.

In a dislocation, the head of the head (caput radii) and / or the body-facing end of the ulna, the olecranon, slips off the distal end of the humerus from the distal end of the body so that the three bones are no longer properly aligned are moved.

Basically, a dislocation in the humero-ulnar joint, ie the articulated part between humerus and ulna, is more common than a dislocation between the radius and the humerus.

Very often is a shift to the rear or rear-outside. The ligamentous apparatus at the elbow joint can break in or tear just like the capsule. It is not unusual for fractures (broken bones) to occur on the humerus, the olecranon of the ulna or the radial head. Unpleasant complications include injuries to arteries, veins, and nerves that run near the joint.

In doing so, the humerus with its joint roll (trochlea humeri) slips out to the rear or back-out of the bony depression of the ulna, which is formed by the olecranon. At the same time there is also a shift in the connection between the upper arm and the spoke. The radial head with its articular surface slips off the humeral head.

Rarely does a ventral dislocation occur, in which the humerus pushes in front of the ulna and the spokes.

Also rarely does a lateral or divergent dislocation take place - the ulna and the spine move on different sides of the humerus.

The restoration (reduction) of the original joint position should take place within a few hours in order to avoid consequential damage. This takes place under general anesthesia, in that, depending on the dislocation, the joint is brought into its initial position with jerky movements. After a short rest position (1-2 weeks) physiotherapy takes place.

For possible concomitant injuries, such as ligament and bone damage, an operation is indicated to eliminate the damage.

A special form of elbow dislocation is the dislocation of the radial head in small children. The caput radii slips out of its articulated connection and is trapped by a part of the ligament-holding apparatus, the ligamentum anulare radii. This often happens when small children are held by their parents by the hand and are prevented from falling. The force that acts on the radial head, can not be held by the not very stable ligaments and it comes to the dislocation. The children hold the arm after such an incident in a posture, in which the arm and the hand are slightly not turned inside (pronation), hence the name Pronatio dolorosa (painful pronation).

No restoration is needed to restore the original position of the radial head. It can be restored by a skilled doctor in a few simple steps.

Therapy for elbow pain

taping

Taping in case of irritation in the elbow should help alleviate the pain and increase the blood flow in the affected areas. The increased circulation should accelerate the healing process. The pain relief is hoped that the patient holds his arm less in restraint, thus avoiding spasms by abnormal positions.

At the elbow, taping is often used in the course of overloading.

One application is the tennis elbow - while the external origin of the extensor muscles of the forearm is irritated (epicondyle lateralis). By sticking tapes over the forearm of the bent wrist to the outer side of the elbow, the extensor muscles are relieved.

When irritating the origins of the forearm flexors on the inner side of the elbow (epicondylus medialis) can also be taped. The tapes are stuck on the inside of the extended forearm along the flexor muscles to the wrist.

Further inflammation of the elbow may also tap the artery of the humerus (triceps brachii muscle) attached to the elbow.

Basically, only those who are familiar with the medical and anatomical fundamentals of the elbow should tap. In the case of incorrect use, on the one hand there is no supporting effect and in rare cases the problem may worsen.

elbow brace

By a bandage, the joint can be made quiet, so you can prevent problems.

Many muscles and tendons for the hand and forearm have their origin in the area of ​​the elbow. When irritated by one-sided movements or overloads, such as the tennis elbow or golfer's elbow, a bandage on the elbow can supportive effect. The bandage relieves and stabilizes the tendons and muscle origins.

In addition, can be done via a bandage immobilization of the elbow joint. Due to the additional stability and immobilization, the healing of an irritation can be supported.

In addition, a bandage can prevent even the emergence of problems preventative - it can be used prophylactically.

Anatomy of the elbow

Illustration right elbow joint from the front (A) and from the left (B)
  1. Upper Arm Heads -
    Capitulum humeri
  2. Outer Upper Wristbone -
    Epicondylus lateralis
  3. Inner Top Joint -
    Epicondylus medialis
  4. Upper arm roll - Trochlea humeri
  5. Upper arm shaft -
    Corpus humeri
  6. Spoke Head - Caput radii
  7. Spokes neck - Collum radii
  8. Roughness of the spoke -
    Tuberositas radii
  9. Roughness of the Elle -
    Tuberositas ulnae
  10. Spoke shaft -
    Corpus radii
  11. Ellenschaft -
    Corpus ulnae
  12. articular cartilage
  13. Joint capsule -
    Capsula articularis
  14. Ellennerv -
    ulnar
  15. Armstroller -
    Muscle triceps brachii
  16. Upper arm muscle -
    Biceps brachii

Structure of the elbow

The elbow joint is formed by three bones:

  1. Humerus
  2. Elle (Ulna)
  3. Spoke (radius)

By combining different hinge types (hinge, ball and pivot joint) the great degrees of movement and limitations are possible. Since this joint is not constantly under load, a wear (osteoarthritis) without fractures or certain underlying diseases (eg rheumatism) are rare.

ELBOW PAIN CAUSES AND TREATMENT - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim (December 2019).


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