nutrition

introduction

Proper nutrition plays a vital role in maintaining good health. Different goals require different dietary habits. The nutrition can be used on the one hand for therapeutic purposes, on the other hand, the diet plays a significant role in sporting success. In addition, a healthy diet helps maintain healthy teeth. For a balanced and balanced diet, the following points must be met.

  • The required energy needs must be provided by the main energy suppliers carbohydrates and fats
  • For the coverage of the material requirement and the cell structure, as well as the preservation and repair of the cells sufficient proteins must be supplied
  • Vitamins and minerals must be covered by sufficient intake
  • The preparation should be tasty.

Taking into account these four points, optimal performance can be achieved for both active and non-athletes. In high-performance sports, the performance of the intestine becomes a performance-limiting factor; in recreational sports, optimum performance can also be achieved with a limited supply of energy. However, the diet in this case should consist of high quality food. This is especially the case when losing weight. Depending on the sporting goals, the priorities of food intake shift from more energy-yielding (carbohydrates in endurance sports) to more fabric-based (protein for muscle growth)

nutrition therapies

The right diet is often used for therapeutic purposes . Here is an overview of the right nutritional therapies for different diseases

  • Diet for high blood pressure
  • Diet in diabetes
  • Diet for colonic diseases
  • Diet for small intestinal disease
  • Diet at Cholesterien
  • Diet in gout
  • Diet with urinary stones
  • Nutrition in heart disease
  • Diet in kidney disease
  • Diet in case of digestive tract disease
  • Nutrition in hyperlipoproteins

Diet in sports

The appropriate nutrition plays in addition to the optimal planning of sports training the crucial role for long-term success. Here you get an overview of all topics in the field of nutrition and sport.

  • Muscle building and nutrition
  • Strength training and nutrition
  • Carbohydrates and sports
  • The right dietary supplement in sports
  • Doping in sports
  • caffeine

Diet and losing weight

Diet plays a crucial role in targeted weight loss. Here is an overview of interesting information about losing weight.

  • Lose weight
  • diets
  • fat burning
  • overweight
  • Overweight in children
  • Therapy of obesity in children
  • Forms of overweight
  • Determination of body fat percentage
  • Body mass index

energy needs

The nutrients absorbed by the food are broken down in the organism to H2O, CO2 and urea in the protein synthesis. The energy released in the body during the breakdown of nutrients corresponds exactly to the value of the absorbed energy.

Energy:

The calorific value is the amount of energy measured in kilo joules (KJ) that is released during the combustion of one gram of this nutrient in the organism. 1 kilocalorie is exactly 4.18 KJ

  • Carbohydrates (17.2 KJ / g) depending on composition (glucose = 15.7KJ / g)
  • Protein (17.2KJ / g)
  • Fat (38.9 KJ / g)

If the absorbed amount of energy is higher than the delivery, the body mass / weight increase increases. If the energy supply is lower than the energy release, there is a drop in performance and the onset of hunger.

More than 80% of the energy absorbed through food is released in the form of heat. Only 10- 20% is implemented by external work (skeletal muscle). For competitive athletes the values ​​are higher. The normal eating habits indicate an increased fat intake (about 40%) and a low carbohydrate intake (about 40%). In addition, the carbohydrates are predominantly (about 50%) in the form of monosaccharides (glucose) and disaccharides (commercial sugar) recorded. The diet is too rich in fat, too rich in sugar and too rich in animal protein. In addition, too much alcohol is consumed (average values).

The recommended daily dose for a 35-year-old man is about 2, 500 Kcal / day for moderate work.

The recommended daily dose of protein is about 0.8g / kg body weight. This corresponds to 60 grams of protein daily for a 75 kg human. 1.5 liters of milk or 200g of meat are enough to meet this need. Strength athletes can increase their daily intake according to the phase of muscle building. The recommended daily intake of fats should be between 80 and 90 g in men. and in women between 60 and 70 g. lie. The fats should consist predominantly of unsaturated fatty acids, these have a free binding site and can transport eg vitamins. More than half of the energy consumed should consist of carbohydrates and polysaccharides. These include (cereal products, pasta, rice, potatoes, vegetables, etc.) distributed over the day about 350 grams of carbohydrates should be included.

The three nutrients

More and more Germans are eating too unhealthily

The food intake of humans usually consists of animal and vegetable products. In addition to meat, eggs and dairy products also belong to the animal products). The majority of foods contain only three chemically defined groups in addition to vitamins, minerals and water, which the organism can implement. These three so-called main nutrients or macronutrients include:

  1. carbohydrates
  2. fats
  3. proteins

In addition to the main nutrients mentioned above, vitamins, minerals and fiber are part of the diet.

vitamins

Vitamins as an important part of the diet

Vitamins are chemical compounds that are needed in very small quantities. The exception is the vitamin C, the daily requirement is about 75mg per day. Vitamins are incorporated into coenzymes and cause an acceleration of the metabolism (catalytic function). Under normal eating habits, vitamin deficiencies (scurvy in the absence of vitamin C) or (rickets in the absence of vitamin D) are very rare. Vitamin deficiency diseases usually occur as a result of one-sided nutrition. More often, however, there are hypovitaminoses in which relative deficiencies occur without disease states. With high physical activity, this is often the case with vitamin B of the B group. Vitamins are distinguished with regard to their water solubility. Read also our main topic Vitamins

The fat-soluble ones include:

  • Vitamin A ( retinol ) is found in fruits, milk and vegetables and is considered part of the visual purple. Vitamin A can be stored and serves to adapt the eye to different brightness levels.
  • Vitamin E ( tocopherol ), like vitamin C, belongs to the group of antioxidants and is found in cereal grains and fruit. Vitamin E acts as a protective agent against unwanted oxidations that can destroy cell and vessel walls. Unproven is the effect of increasing fertility and reducing aging. Vitamin E is often taken by athletes. More about Vitamin E.
  • Vitamin D ( Kalziferol ) is contained in egg, milk and cod liver oil. It regulates phosphate and calcium metabolism and thus influences the mineralization of the bone. Deficiency symptoms cause bone softening, especially in children. More about vitamin D.
  • Vitamin K ( phylloquinone ) is mainly found in green vegetables and tomatoes and improves blood clotting. It stimulates the liver to form prothrobin. With deficiency symptoms it comes to a delayed blood coagulation. Menhr to Vitamin K.

Note: EDEKA

Non-fat soluble include:

  • Vitamin B (B1, B2, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid) are found in grains, yeast, protein, liver. Vitamin B1 is contained in the breakdown of glucose. Deficiency causes increased lactate levels and reduced exercise capacity. Vitamin B2 is responsible for the aerobic metabolism. Vitamin B6 is involved in the formation of new sugars as well as hemoglobin and myoglobin. Lack of vitamin B6 thus causes anemia and diminished performance. Vitamin B12 is responsible for the fat and carbohydrate metabolism and helps in the formation of red blood cells. Deficiency symptoms are dangerous anemia. More about vitamin B
  • Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, can only be stored to a limited degree and is important for bone formation, building connective tissue and wound healing. Vitamin C is responsible for iron absorption in the intestine, tannins from coffee and tea inhibit this intake. A performance-enhancing, as well as increased infection defense is still unproven by the supply of vitamin C. The daily dose is between 200-400 mg. Contained is vitamin C especially in fruits and vegetables. A lack of vitamin C is particularly noticeable through bleeding gums. More about Vitamin C

minerals

The minerals needed include:

  • Cations ( sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, cabalt, zinc and copper )
  • Anions ( phostate, chloride, fluoride and iodide )

Minerals are differentiated in their required concentration

set elements

Sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as well as phosphate and chloride are very high at a daily dose of about 50mg per kilogram of body weight. The minerals make up 5% of the body mass. Sodium and chloride are outside the cell, potassium and phosphate are inside the cell. There they are responsible for the excitation transmission to nerves, as well as osmotic pressure and water balance of the cells. Other ions perform more specific functions. Phosphate is part of the adenosine triphosphate and therefore necessary in the provision of energy. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals and is part of the enzymes for energy transfer to the muscle cells and thus trigger a muscle contraction. Through exercise, magnesium is increasingly taken up in the muscle cell and excreted by the sweat again. A magnesium deficiency increases the permeability of the cell walls causing enzymes to leave the cell. The performance drops and magnesium must be supplied. Calcium is 50% part of the bones. Due to the increased loss of mineral salts, the need for athletes is significantly higher.

The low concentration minerals are called trace elements.

The most important are iron as part of the red blood cells. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia. Iodide is a component of the thyroid hormones and fluoride is necessary for tooth and bone formation.

The function of iron

Iron is important for the transport of oxygen in the blood and thus for the maintenance of the metabolism. Iron deficiency makes you feel limp and exhausted. The body can metabolize the carbohydrates in iron deficiency difficult and thus retrieve only very limited energy. The iron levels vary in many people due to metabolic disorders and unfavorable diet. In athletic stress and increased loss of sweat also leads to a loss of iron. To compensate for the loss, the human body needs about 15 mg. per day.

This topic might also interest you: Iron in the human body

How do you recognize iron deficiency?

  • Disruption of hair and nail growth
  • Cracks in the corner of the mouth
  • Tiredness and sluggishness
  • Decreased efficiency
  • Pale skin

An iron deficiency builds up over a very long period of time. It also takes several months for a therapy to show visible results. Sufficient iron supply is therefore particularly important.

Three points about iron control:

  1. Pay close attention to the sufficient supply of iron through the food
  2. Use activators for iron absorption
  3. Avoid iron inhibitors ( see below )

Iron from animal products are much better absorbed by the human body than iron from plant products. The animal iron is in divalent form. Especially endurance athletes should be paid attention to a sufficient supply of iron.

Activators for iron absorption:

  • Vitamin C: converts the trivalent iron form into divalent
  • Sprouts: has a particularly suitable iron availability
  • Lactic acid: builds the iron inhibitor phytic acid

Inhibitory factors of iron absorption:

  • Phytic acid: occurs in all unleavened whole grain cereals
  • Cola drinks: inhibit iron absorption and should therefore be avoided during the meal
  • Tannic Acid: In coffee, iron binds to itself and can therefore no longer be absorbed by the body. These should be taken between meals.

Diet in sports

  • Sports: Bodybuilding, weightlifting, strength training, muscle building
  • Requirement: Enlargement of the muscle cross-section with low fat content
  • Diet: Protein-rich diet with up to 3g protein per kilogram of body weight. Additional nutritional supplement by BCAA, glutamine, tryptophan
  • Sports: running, swimming, cycling, triathlon, marathon, biathlon, rowing
  • Requirement: Improvement and maintenance of endurance or endurance. Fast regeneration after exercise
  • Diet: high energy intake through carbohydrates and proteins. Up to 6000kcal per day. Additional nutritional supplement with vitamins, minerals, L-carnitine
  • Sports: Martial arts
  • Requirement: weight control, weight loss and weight gain
  • Nutrition: Drastic change of energy and water supply before and after weighing. Before energetic deficiency, after loading
  • Sports: compositional sports
  • Requirement: Keep low body mass
  • Nutrition: Lower energy nutrition. Nutritional supplement by vitamins and proteins

Obesity (obesity) / obesity

In addition to the lack of exercise, the wrong diet is a common cause of obese obesity. There is a permanently increased energy supply compared to energy consumption. The individual fat storage becomes a problem when the body mass significantly exceeds the normal range. The determination of obesity proves to be exceedingly difficult, since most methods only bring the weight into relation with body size. See BMI (Body Mass Index). The determination of the proportion of body fat appears to make much more sense. Men are considered obese if the body fat percentage is over 20%, in women over 30%. See also obesity. Do you need information about bad breath?

The Power of Nutrition - Luke Corey, RD, LDN | UCLA Health Sports Performance powered by EXOS (December 2019).


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