Proper nutrition plays a vital role in maintaining good health. Different goals require different dietary habits. The nutrition can be used on the one hand for therapeutic purposes, on the other hand, the diet plays a significant role in sporting success. In addition, a healthy diet helps maintain healthy teeth. For a balanced and balanced diet, the following points must be met.
Taking into account these four points, optimal performance can be achieved for both active and non-athletes. In high-performance sports, the performance of the intestine becomes a performance-limiting factor; in recreational sports, optimum performance can also be achieved with a limited supply of energy. However, the diet in this case should consist of high quality food. This is especially the case when losing weight. Depending on the sporting goals, the priorities of food intake shift from more energy-yielding (carbohydrates in endurance sports) to more fabric-based (protein for muscle growth)
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The nutrients absorbed by the food are broken down in the organism to H2O, CO2 and urea in the protein synthesis. The energy released in the body during the breakdown of nutrients corresponds exactly to the value of the absorbed energy.
The calorific value is the amount of energy measured in kilo joules (KJ) that is released during the combustion of one gram of this nutrient in the organism. 1 kilocalorie is exactly 4.18 KJ
If the absorbed amount of energy is higher than the delivery, the body mass / weight increase increases. If the energy supply is lower than the energy release, there is a drop in performance and the onset of hunger.
More than 80% of the energy absorbed through food is released in the form of heat. Only 10- 20% is implemented by external work (skeletal muscle). For competitive athletes the values are higher. The normal eating habits indicate an increased fat intake (about 40%) and a low carbohydrate intake (about 40%). In addition, the carbohydrates are predominantly (about 50%) in the form of monosaccharides (glucose) and disaccharides (commercial sugar) recorded. The diet is too rich in fat, too rich in sugar and too rich in animal protein. In addition, too much alcohol is consumed (average values).
The recommended daily dose for a 35-year-old man is about 2, 500 Kcal / day for moderate work.
The recommended daily dose of protein is about 0.8g / kg body weight. This corresponds to 60 grams of protein daily for a 75 kg human. 1.5 liters of milk or 200g of meat are enough to meet this need. Strength athletes can increase their daily intake according to the phase of muscle building. The recommended daily intake of fats should be between 80 and 90 g in men. and in women between 60 and 70 g. lie. The fats should consist predominantly of unsaturated fatty acids, these have a free binding site and can transport eg vitamins. More than half of the energy consumed should consist of carbohydrates and polysaccharides. These include (cereal products, pasta, rice, potatoes, vegetables, etc.) distributed over the day about 350 grams of carbohydrates should be included.
The food intake of humans usually consists of animal and vegetable products. In addition to meat, eggs and dairy products also belong to the animal products). The majority of foods contain only three chemically defined groups in addition to vitamins, minerals and water, which the organism can implement. These three so-called main nutrients or macronutrients include:
In addition to the main nutrients mentioned above, vitamins, minerals and fiber are part of the diet.
Vitamins are chemical compounds that are needed in very small quantities. The exception is the vitamin C, the daily requirement is about 75mg per day. Vitamins are incorporated into coenzymes and cause an acceleration of the metabolism (catalytic function). Under normal eating habits, vitamin deficiencies (scurvy in the absence of vitamin C) or (rickets in the absence of vitamin D) are very rare. Vitamin deficiency diseases usually occur as a result of one-sided nutrition. More often, however, there are hypovitaminoses in which relative deficiencies occur without disease states. With high physical activity, this is often the case with vitamin B of the B group. Vitamins are distinguished with regard to their water solubility. Read also our main topic Vitamins
The fat-soluble ones include:
Non-fat soluble include:
The minerals needed include:
Minerals are differentiated in their required concentration
Sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as well as phosphate and chloride are very high at a daily dose of about 50mg per kilogram of body weight. The minerals make up 5% of the body mass. Sodium and chloride are outside the cell, potassium and phosphate are inside the cell. There they are responsible for the excitation transmission to nerves, as well as osmotic pressure and water balance of the cells. Other ions perform more specific functions. Phosphate is part of the adenosine triphosphate and therefore necessary in the provision of energy. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals and is part of the enzymes for energy transfer to the muscle cells and thus trigger a muscle contraction. Through exercise, magnesium is increasingly taken up in the muscle cell and excreted by the sweat again. A magnesium deficiency increases the permeability of the cell walls causing enzymes to leave the cell. The performance drops and magnesium must be supplied. Calcium is 50% part of the bones. Due to the increased loss of mineral salts, the need for athletes is significantly higher.
The low concentration minerals are called trace elements.
The most important are iron as part of the red blood cells. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia. Iodide is a component of the thyroid hormones and fluoride is necessary for tooth and bone formation.
Iron is important for the transport of oxygen in the blood and thus for the maintenance of the metabolism. Iron deficiency makes you feel limp and exhausted. The body can metabolize the carbohydrates in iron deficiency difficult and thus retrieve only very limited energy. The iron levels vary in many people due to metabolic disorders and unfavorable diet. In athletic stress and increased loss of sweat also leads to a loss of iron. To compensate for the loss, the human body needs about 15 mg. per day.
This topic might also interest you: Iron in the human body
An iron deficiency builds up over a very long period of time. It also takes several months for a therapy to show visible results. Sufficient iron supply is therefore particularly important.
Iron from animal products are much better absorbed by the human body than iron from plant products. The animal iron is in divalent form. Especially endurance athletes should be paid attention to a sufficient supply of iron.
In addition to the lack of exercise, the wrong diet is a common cause of obese obesity. There is a permanently increased energy supply compared to energy consumption. The individual fat storage becomes a problem when the body mass significantly exceeds the normal range. The determination of obesity proves to be exceedingly difficult, since most methods only bring the weight into relation with body size. See BMI (Body Mass Index). The determination of the proportion of body fat appears to make much more sense. Men are considered obese if the body fat percentage is over 20%, in women over 30%. See also obesity. Do you need information about bad breath?