A heel bone fracture ( calcaneus fracture) is a fracture injury to the heel bone, which is part of the ankle.
Most such breaks are caused by traffic accidents or a fall from a great height. The resulting fracture usually causes great pain to patients. Depending on the type of injury, a heel bone fracture can be treated either conservatively (without surgery) or, more often, surgically. At least for complicated fractures are long-term consequences of this type of injury is not uncommon.
A heel bone fracture is the fracture of the heel bone anywhere.
A distinction is made here between impression fractures (in which the tibia is pressed onto the heel bone and therefore leads relatively to the middle of a fracture) and marginal fractures.
In addition, one can distinguish between an isolated heel bone fracture (that is, if otherwise no damage has occurred, which means always that the joint is not involved, one speaks therefore of an extra-articular fracture ) and a fracture of the heel bone, in which the joint ( intra-articular fracture ) or other structures such as the Achilles tendon (also referred to as a duckbill fracture ) also be affected.
The classic injury mechanism underlying a heel bone fracture is a fall from a great height. When landing, a great force is exerted on the heel bone, which can not withstand it and ultimately breaks through. It comes to a so-called impression break. Often, this fracture arises on both sides.
As a result, people who carry out correspondingly risky sports, such as parachutists or climbers, are often affected. Sometimes, on the other hand, a false appearance after a "normal" jump is enough to cause a heel bone fracture.
Depending on the course, some traffic accidents can also be accompanied by a broken rock leg. By a kinking in the ankle, it can also lead to heel bone fracture, in such a case, however, usually arises an edge fracture of the heel bone.
Rarely does a temporal bone fracture occur on the floor of an already existing fatigue of this bone, as it may, for example, occur in the context of osteoporosis. Then there is no need for so much external violence as usual, because the previously damaged bone breaks faster.
The most important symptom of heel bone fracture is the pain that begins immediately after the triggering event in the affected heel. This pain is often so severe that it makes an occurrence with stress, therefore, a standing and walking impossible.
The mobility of a part of the ankle, namely in the joint between the heel and talus, is partially or completely canceled, at least if the fracture is associated with joint involvement.
Often, the damaged heel is also noticeable by swelling or broadening in the area of the hernia or hematoma . In addition, it can lead to deformations of the foot, for example, a flat foot.