Sore throat means painful discomfort in the back of the throat caused by various causes of sore throat and has existed for a maximum of 14 days.
Sore throats are one of the most common complaints made in the daily practice of a family doctor in addition to the common cold. One survey found that 75% of respondents complained of sore throats in the last 4 weeks. Thirty-three percent of respondents aged 14 and over reported having suffered from a sore throat at least once in the previous year. Children up to the age of 15 are much more likely to suffer from sore throats than adults. For example, 80% of children under the age of 15 confirmed having had sore throats in the last few months, but only 20% of adults. Despite the high incidence of sore throat in the population, a doctor is rarely consulted. Among the doctor's visits caused by sore throats are usually pediatrician visits, which the parents make with their sick children. Adults themselves almost never go to the doctor because of a sore throat.
There are many different causes for sore throats.
The most common is certainly a cold that makes the throat swollen and painful. In principle, however, all compartments of the neck can also be inflamed in combination or individually. These include:
Inflammation of these areas of the neck is usually associated with a sore throat.
Rarer but also conceivable causes can be infectious diseases such as diphtheria. Although it is usually vaccinated against it in childhood, but especially in Asia, the disease rate is very high. Symptomatic is an extremely swollen neck that causes sore throat and difficulty swallowing.
Also a permanent irritation of the air-conducting system, for example, by smoking, or singing can lead to a sore throat. Cigarette smoke triggers a local inflammatory reaction for about 4 hours, and narrows the vessels. If cold, dry air is added in the winter, the throat reacts quickly with swelling and pain.
Also, thyroid disease, which lies in front of the trachea and presses on the neck can cause sore throat, as well as tightness.
Find out more here: Causes of sore throat
Since sore throats may be due to a wide variety of causes, the symptoms and ailments are also very diverse.
In case of tonsillitis, sore throat pain, bad breath, and a strong sense of malaise usually accompany the sore throat. Food and drink are almost no longer possible in the advanced stage, resulting in a weight loss and increased susceptibility to infection for other pathogens.
An acute tonsillitis can potentially also lead to chronic tonsillitis, and cause a rheumatic fever.
Sore throat can also be an expression of vocal cord inflammation, and may be accompanied by hoarseness and difficulty breathing. This is especially the case with singers and longtime smokers. In these cases, a sparing voice, or a stop smoking is useful.
In one of the most typical diseases for adolescence - the Pfeiffersche glandular fever, also known as " kissing disease " - it comes to a viral infection with the Epstein-Barr virus. It is transmitted by saliva and droplets, and therefore occurs frequently in adolescents or young adults.
As a result, it comes to tonsillitis and pharyngitis, ie an inflammation of the oral-nasal cavity. Although the Pfeiffer's glandular fever has similar symptoms as an tonsillitis on, but is more serious, and must not be treated as the bacterial angina, with antibiotics, otherwise it can lead to drug eruptions! In addition to a general physical inactivity, it may in rare cases come to a splenic rupture, or meningitis.
On the basis of tonsillitis it can also lead to a peritonsillar abscess. This obstructs additional food intake and respiration, and usually has to be surgically split.
A rarely occurring disease is the diphtheria, in which it comes to a so-called Caesar neck :
This is the term for the heavily swollen lymph nodes distributed throughout the neck, which enlarge the entire neck. The larynx also swells, causing respiratory distress when inhaled. In the cervical and pharyngeal area a pseudomembrane can form. This is what is called white-brownish deposits on the throat, which bleed when lightly touched.
In western industrialized countries, diphtheria is vaccinated against the first year of life, in developing countries, or in vaccine opponents, diphtheria may still occur.
As part of an inflammation or an infection can cause throat pain and cough and earache.
In many cases, ear symptoms include other accompanying symptoms, such as dizziness or even hearing loss, as both the hearing organ and the organ of equilibrium are located in the ear.
Infections often lead to the spread of disease-causing germs, which are located on the mucosa of the nasopharyngeal area, into the middle ear. This is possible because there is a connection between the human nasopharynx and the middle ear in the form of a tube, the so - called eustachian tube ( tuba auditiva ).
This actually serves to equalize the pressure. Through the connection, it is possible to ascend germs and trigger an inflammatory reaction in the middle ear (see: otitis media)
Small children are especially affected with respiratory infections. With them, the connecting tube is designed to be even shorter than in adults and it runs even more horizontal, so that inflammatory pathogens can easily ascend and affect the middle ear.
In addition, children are generally more likely to suffer from respiratory infections than adults.
For mild infections, it is usually sufficient to protect yourself and rest for a few days, so that the symptoms are declining. Antibiotics are usually used only in slightly more severe courses or when complications are expected. Nasal drops are very often administered, especially if the nose is very secretive in respiratory infections.
They relieve the swelling of the mucous membrane, which allows the accumulating secretion to flow better and does not build up in the ear and accumulate behind the eardrum.
Sore throats associated with dysphagia may have multiple causes and may not always be associated with tonsillitis.
Infections in the mouth and throat, both bacterial, and viral, can lead to sore throat and difficulty swallowing, as usually the mouth and throat mucosa is irritated by the pathogens, so that it changes reactive inflammatory, gets a reddish color, sensitive to pain is and often swells.
The mucosal inflammation then leads to sore throat and - due to the simultaneous mucosal swelling - also to swallowing.
Such symptoms are found, for example, in tonsillitis ( tonsillitis ), pharyngitis ( pharyngitis ), laryngitis and viral, influenza infections, but also in more rare infectious diseases, such as scarlet fever, Pfeiffer's glandular fever or diphtheria.
In laryngitis, it swells less the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat, but rather that of the larynx. This swelling inflammation can lead to sore throats, which are particularly severe in swallowing and, in the worst case, to respiratory distress when the larynx swells as part of the respiratory tract.
In most cases, the entire neck is equally affected by sore throats, but in some cases, the sore throat can be unilateral.
This is typical among other things with a Peritonsillarabszess. This is based on an tonsillitis, and refers to a pus-filled bag, which is also in the almonds. In most cases, the pain can be relatively clearly limited to an area.
The angina plaut Vincenti - a one-sided change in the palatine tonsil after mixed infection with fusobacteria and treponemes - the sore throat also occur only on one side. Characteristic here are a strong bad breath, and low physical discomfort.
In addition, tumorous processes in the area of the thyroid gland or paranasal sinuses can cause unilateral sore throat. Tumors rarely grow over the entire neck, and usually one-sided out of a stove. They continue to impress with an externally and internally visible swelling in the neck area. Depending on the type of tumor, growth can increase sharply within a few months, or it can progress very slowly over a number of years.
However, they are not to be confused with swollen lymph nodes, which typically increase in volume during an infection and can press on the neck. This can lead to unilateral sore throat, but usually it disappears at the end of the infection.
In addition to the usual patient survey ( anamnesis ), in which the doctor asks the type of discomfort, the onset and the concomitant symptoms of the patient, the inspection of the neck is one of the most important diagnostic criteria. Using a flashlight, the doctor will inspect the patient's pharynx and, with a spatula, depress the patient's tongue to gain better insight. When asked to say "A", the doctor can tell if the suppository ( uvula ) is being pulled to a particular side or is just remaining. Pulling to one side may substantiate the suspicion of neurological involvement. The doctor can detect during the examination whether the throat is reddened or whether purulent deposits ( so-called stabs ) are present on the tonsils. Furthermore, the doctor will feel around the cervical area to see if lymph node swelling is present. A pathogen with a common complicated course is the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes . In order to distinguish this from the other pathogens, the doctor should ask the following questions to the patient:
Are there fever (higher than 38 degrees), is there a cough, are the anterior cervical lymph nodes swollen, is there evidence of almonds? If all questions can be answered positively, the likelihood of streptococcal pyogenes infection (also known as GAS pharyngitis ) is 50-60%. For mild symptoms and the absence of risk factors, no further diagnosis is necessary. In the other case, a blood test should be used. Thus, this as well as a smear from the almond region may make the pathogen culturable under certain circumstances. However, this procedure has some shortcomings.
On the one hand, the finding lasts 2-3 days, on the other hand, a non-presence of the pathogen in the breeding does not exclude a pyogenesis infection one hundred percent. There are also rapid tests that can diagnose streptococcal involvement. However, there is no one hundred percent certainty. In the blood test, especially the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is increased in an infection (BSG) are measured.
The CRP will also be much higher than the norm in case of infection. Furthermore, it is still possible to detect the Streptococcus produced antistreptolysin titer in the blood.
The detection makes a streptococcal infection probable. At the patient's presentation, the doctor should also try to avert numerous severe and complicated courses. For example, a diagnosed breathlessness is an absolute emergency for the patient, as it is thought to involve the epiglottis with swelling of the airways. In this case, an immediate hospitalization is necessary. In addition, care must be taken to see if the patient has difficulty swallowing or if he has difficulty opening his mouth.
There are a variety of natural remedies for sore throats, which can usually be easily prepared and applied effectively at home. In most cases, these home remedies can relieve the symptoms of a simple cold. If, despite the self-treatment, the symptoms do not improve after three to five days, if there is a high fever, difficulty in swallowing or visible pus marks on the throat, or if the lymph nodes on the neck swell markedly and a pronounced malaise sets in, a doctor should be consulted.
The most important remedy for colds and sore throats is regular drinking. As a result, the mucous membranes are kept moist and irritation of the oral mucosa are weakened. Drinking plenty of non-carbonated water or herbal teas forms the basis of any home remedy for sore throats.
A cold neck wrap can help relieve pain and inhibit inflammation. A linen cloth is moistened with cold water, wrapped around the neck and tied with a dry woolen scarf. So the cold neck wrap can absorb and build up your own body heat and thus acts as a heat application.
Another home remedy provides that a damp cold wrap is additionally coated with fresh cottage cheese and wrapped directly with the quark side around the neck. Boiled potatoes can also be tied around the neck in the cooled and crushed state. A flax seed wrap is made by cooking flaxseed in water and then pounding it into a porridge, which is then stripped into a damp linen cloth and wrapped around the neck.
Neck wraps are particularly effective when left on the neck for a long time (eg, during the night) and can have a soothing effect on sore throat and hoarseness.
Regular gargling can also help with sore throat, as the pharynx is usually dry, irritated and inflamed. Gargling with sage or chamomile additionally counteracts inflammation in the throat and throat, kills bacteria and viruses and promotes wound healing. For example, gargling tea with chamomile tea every two hours can be effective in relieving sore throats.
However, sage and chamomile are not only suitable as gargles, due to their anti-inflammatory and germ-inhibiting effects they are also used as teas for internal use in sore throats. Often it comes in addition to the sore throat and body aches. In this case, sage and chamomile can be supplemented by willow bark, whose active ingredients are similar to the active ingredients in painkillers such as acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin®). It is possible to put together in the pharmacy a tea herb mixture, which is tailored to the individual complaints. Also recommended are herbal teas made from thyme, ginger, mallow or the well-known hot (or cold) lemon. Inhaling with medicinal herbs has proven to be a home remedy for sore throats, it has an expectorant effect and frees the nose and sinuses. Camomile and sage, as well as thyme (germicide, expectorant and stimulates the discharge), anise or fennel (has an expectorant effect) are suitable as inhalation additives. Thanks to their high vitamin content, berries are a popular home remedy for common cold. Sea buckthorn and rosehip, black currants and blackberries and elderberries are said to have a good effect especially for sore throat, cough and hoarseness.
A sweat after a hot bath can also have a positive effect on the symptoms. Basically, it is advisable to keep the body warm and especially the feet and neck. The use of throat painkillers can also help relieve discomfort, as it stimulates saliva production and keeps the mucous membranes moist. Sweets with Icelandic moss or ribwort can additionally protect the mucous membranes and help with immune defense. To strengthen the body's defenses, one should stay in healthy ambient air, avoid rooms that are smoked, as well as heavily heated rooms. Warm heating air dries out the mucous membranes in addition and inhibits the mucous membranes in their important defense function, which can favor a cold.
The most important home remedy in addition to adequate hydration is rest and protection. In case of sore throat, fever or malaise, it is advisable to stay at home and take a rest.
You can read more about this topic here: home remedies for sore throats
Each tea develops its analgesic effect via its contained essential oils and tannins. What type of tea should be used for sore throat, is mainly up to the individual taste. Safflower tea, chamomile tea and ginger tea are suitable as anti-inflammatory. When it comes to ginger tea, care should be taken to prepare it as fresh as a so-called "ginger water" if possible. For this, a fresh ginger roll should be cut into thin slices and then boiled in water for ten minutes. In this way, ginger releases as many of its essential oils and tannins as possible to the water. If you also value an expectorant component, you should prefer thyme tea and, depending on your taste, sweeten the tea with a little honey. In principle, care should be taken with each tea that it is not drunk too hot. In most cases, the mucous membrane in the throat area is irritated by secretions or coughing in the context of infections of the upper respiratory tract. Too hot tea would only harm the mucous membrane. In contrast, a warm temperature is often perceived as beneficial and has the effect that the essential oils in the warm state best wet the mucous membrane. In addition, they unfold in the warmed state and their beneficial aroma and can also clear the airways. Teas with a high acidity should be avoided in case of sore throat. Fruit tea is therefore not suitable for relieving sore throat, as the acid contained just strains the irritated mucous membranes.
Anyone who suffers from a sore throat and has neither medication nor home remedies at hand, can help with a sufficient hydration for the sore throat. Normal water is enough to regularly wet the irritated mucous membrane in the throat. The effect is to protect the mucous membranes from dehydration and thus to support their endogenous function as protection against pathogens. If there is already a colonization with pathogens, the liquid intake acts like a rinse effect. Superficial pathogens are thus rinsed off and then killed by stomach acid in the stomach. Pathogens that have already penetrated into the mucous membrane can be eliminated in the form of a secretion with the aid of the liquid offered. Thus, in the mouth and throat more saliva can be produced with anti-inflammatory enzymes and secrete the mucous secretion itself with foreign material. Anyone who additionally suffers from an elevated temperature, ensures the maintenance of his circulatory function with an increased drinking volume. With each degree of temperature rise, the fluid requirement increases by about 10%. Depending on the size and age of the patient, this means an increased need of around one glass of water per degree of temperature rise. Furthermore, an adequate intake of vitamins, trace elements and proteins can support the body's healing. Thus, it also means to eat well and balanced with a sore throat, so that the energy requirement is covered. Otherwise remain next to drinking and eating only simple aids such as a scarf or a warm bath left. Both are more for your own well-being and relieve additional symptoms of a cold.
For sore throats, medicines should always be adjusted to the triggering causes. For example, sore throat should be treated with a cough suppressant by means of an irritating cough and throat pain should be treated by an inflamed, swollen mucous membrane with anti-inflammatory drugs ( anti-inflammatory drugs ). Above all, herbal supplements are available for sale in the pharmacy. Juices with thyme or marshmallow extract are especially suitable for the treatment of coughing. For example, eucalyptus or cineole preparations are antiinflammatory. If additionally an antipyretic effect is required, the administration of ibuprofen is suitable. In addition to its anti-inflammatory aspect, it also has a pain-relieving effect as an analgesic . Avoid medication with a caffeine supplement. Although they improve one's own well-being for a period of time, they often lead to the overestimation of one's own performance. Instead of recovering at home, the body is pushed with the help of caffeine and sufferers go to work. The effect is often an exacerbation of symptoms after the effect has resolved. Even high-dose vitamin C is only limited for a shortening of the disease duration. It is recommended to eat a sufficient amount of fruit per day. If you really want to reduce the duration of the disease, you should focus more on expectorant products with, for example, ivy. Cough removers help to remove pathogens and foreign matter from the body and thus allow a faster healing, although they can shorten the disease duration by a maximum of two days.
The principle of action of homeopathy is based on the assumption that "similar things may be cured by something similar" (according to Hahnemann / founder of homeopathy). In the case of sore throat, this means identifying a plant that has the same disease symptoms that occur with the sore throat. These should then be taken diluted, so that a canceling effect should arise. For colds with sore throats are suitable for granules with calendula (marigold), Aconitum (Eisenhut) or Ichthyolum (shale oil). All globules should be adapted several times a day depending on their age and general condition. The recommended potency should be within D4 to D6. The number and letter combination means how much the actual mother tincture was diluted with parts of solvents. D4 thus means a 1:10 000 dilution and D6 a 1: 1 000 000 dilution. Due to the strong dilution, the effect is very mild and supports your own healing process rather than interfering directly with it. Homeopathic remedies are therefore very suitable for mild sore throats. From a D4 potency, they are also available in the pharmacy freely.
In most cases, the symptoms disappear after a short time of a few days. In a few cases, complicated courses can be the result of intensive antibiotic treatment. In some cases, however, infections spread throughout the body due to strep throat must be feared.
Since sore throat is generally a symptom of various causes and initially can not be said exactly what triggers the sore throat, in addition to general measures to strengthen the immune system (balanced diet, regular exercise), no further prophylactic measures known.
Further tips can be found at our partner
Behind the vernacular cold called a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The pathogens cause a sudden onset of symptoms, which manifests itself in a clear discharge from the nose and a general malaise. The recording of the pathogens takes place in most cases via a droplet infection via the inhaled air. Through the moist mucous membranes, they are caught at the latest in the throat and then lead to local symptoms. Sore throat is mainly caused by the draining secretion on the palate. It irritates the mucous membranes and is very adherent due to its tough consistency compared to saliva. It contained pathogens thus have a relatively large chance to infiltrate the mucous membrane and also to lead in the neck to a painful swollen mucosa. Especially the lateral pharyngeal wall is sensitive to this secretion. It contains lymphatics, which serve the body's defense. Upon contact with pathogens, they swell and initiate an immune process by using defense cells. In the jargon, the evoked disease is referred to as side-strand angina.
Sore throat when swallowing is caused by an inflamed mucous membrane in the throat area. Above all, the side strands in the posterior, lateral pharyngeal wall are usually heavily swollen as a result of an infection, since here are lymph channels as part of the body's defense system. The swelling itself means that the immune system deals with the pathogens and a fight against the pathogens is initiated. At the same time, however, the swelling is also painful, since it leads to an irritation of sensitive nerve endings, especially during the swallowing process by the rhythmic up and down movement of the muscles under the mucous membrane. In addition, the mucosa itself is more susceptible to minute tears and dehydration due to its taut condition above the swelling. Therefore, it sometimes comes here even more to further infections with bacteria, which in turn can lead to further sore throat when swallowing. As a further diagnosis, however, is also an tonsilitis into consideration. If the soft palate is closed against the nasal area during the swallowing process, the palate arch with the tonsils is also moved by muscles. When inflamed and swollen, each pull on your tissue causes pain. Mostly, an inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsil can be seen by looking into the mouth. If red, thick almonds are visible under the uvula, this indicates an tonsillitis. Sore throats are thus always associated with a morbidly altered mucous membrane, which can be treated well locally by means of sucking pastilles.
An allergic or allergic reaction is an overreaction of the body's immune system to otherwise harmless substances such as house dust or pollen.
Most allergies are manifested by redness of the eyes, sneezing, and runny nose. However, some patients develop such a violent reaction to certain substances that it comes to real allergic shock reactions.
This complication, known as anaphylactic shock, is potentially life-threatening and, in an emergency, is treated by the ambulance with an intravenous dose of adrenaline or glucocorticoids. The throat and airways swell, the circulation fails, and the cells are no longer supplied with blood. Less severe courses of an allergic reaction lead to a furry feeling in the throat, a burning sensation, swelling of the lips, the throat, and the palate, and a strong itching.
These symptoms also make it possible to distinguish the allergy from a common cold. If the reactions occur after eating certain foods, or while staying "in the countryside, " the suspicion of an allergy is already very close.
Due to the constant coughing and clogging of the respiratory tract, as well as the throat and throat area, it can also lead to sore throat in the long run.
Whether it is actually an allergy, can be determined with the help of the so-called prick test:
For this purpose, small cuts are placed in the skin on the forearm, and applied to this the allergen. Based on the swelling, and the severity of the swelling, it can be determined against which allergen the patient is as strongly allergic.
For treatment antihistamines can be taken. These are tablets that dampen the overreaction of the body, as a side effect but unfortunately also make relatively tired - so no optimal solution. Therefore, it is most important to avoid the triggering allergen.
Both external and internal cooling help against the sore throat. You can simply wrap a cool pack in a kitchen towel and put it on your neck. The application should not be uncomfortable, and should not be longer than 10 minutes at a time.
Ice cream cools the throat and throat from the inside, and combats the swelling. In addition, the muscles contract, which also has a space-opening effect. Before that, however, a cold should be ruled out, as ice would be counterproductive in this case. Self-tests for distinction are made fast, and even available on the internet.
Pregnancy tends to weaken the mother's body's immune system. For this reason, it is easier for viruses and bacteria in the body to cause infections that can sometimes be responsible for sore throats. Therefore, care should be taken during pregnancy to prevent colds as much as possible. This can be done by a balanced diet as well as a sufficient intake of vitamins as well as the avoidance of accumulations of people with cold waves. Halsschmerzen stellen auch bei Schwangeren meist ein Frühzeichen für das auftreten eines sogenannten grippalen Infektes dar. Dieser wird von sogenannten Rhinoviren ausgelöst und ist auch bei Schwangeren in der Regel harmlos. Neben den Halsschmerzen treten zeitlich versetzt außerdem eine erhöhte Temperatur, Kopfschmerzen, Gliederschmerzen, eine allgemeine Schwäche sowie Appetitlosigkeit auf. Wenn die Symptome und die Halsschmerzen deutlich schlimmer werden sollte ein Arzt aufgesucht werden welcher über eine geeignete, individuelle Therapie entscheiden kann. Für das Baby ist ein grippaler Infekt der Mutter stets harmlos. Bei hohem Fieber sollte gegebenenfalls jedoch trotz allem ein Arzt aufgesucht werden.
Bei Kleinkindern und Babys ist es schwieriger, die genaue Ursache des Problems auszumachen. Schließlich können sie nicht erklären, was ihnen fehlt, oder was den Kleinen Schmerzen bereitet.
Meist äußern sie ihr Unbehagen durch schreien, was natürlich relativ unspezifisch ist. Daher ist bei Babys und Kleinkindern eine genaue Untersuchung besonders wichtig. In diesem Alter ist der Organismus zusätzlich noch nicht so strapazierfähig, so dass schon kleine Probleme große Komplikationen nach sich ziehen können.
Häufig ist bei Kleinkindern beispielsweise das Verschlucken von Fremdkörpern, also zum Beispiel kleinen Spielzeugteilen wie Legosteine, oder Murmeln . Diese können den relativ großen Mund-Rachen Raum noch passieren, bleiben dann aber meistens in der Speiseröhre stecken. Das ist natürlich schmerzhaft, und Essen kann man damit auch nicht mehr. Nur können Babys und Kleinkinder dies noch nicht artikulieren.
Sollte also der Verdacht bestehen, dass ein Kleinteil verschluckt wurde, ist eine sofortige Entfernung durch einen Pädiater indiziert. Die Teile können sich auch nachträglich noch an eine andere Stelle bewegen, und beispielsweise die Luftröhre verlegen.
Sollten die Halsschmerzen eine andere Ursache - wie eine Infektion- haben, so hilft auch oft das lutschen von Pastillen wie EM Eukal ® . Diese sind auch in einer zuckerfreien Kindervariante erhältlich, um die Zahnflora nicht zu schädigen.
Ergänzend zu Hustenpastillen kann auch gegurgelt werden.
Eine sehr häufige Erkrankung von Babys und Kleinkindern ist indes der sogenannte Pseudokrupp. Er wird von Parainfluenzaviren verursacht, ist jedoch relativ ungefährlich. Er tritt typischerweise in der Nacht, und in den kälteren Herbst- und Wintermonaten auf. Klassisch ist ein bellender Husten, Heiserkeit, und Halsweh, so wie das niedrige Alter (Kleinkind- und Babyalter).
Die Eltern sind verständlicherweise meist sehr besorgt, da ihr Kind Zeichen akuter Luftnot äußert. Allerdings reicht in vielen Fällen schon kalte, feuchte Luft und Beruhigung des Kindes. Oft sind die Symptome daher schon abgeklungen, wenn die Eltern dann in einer kalten Winternacht die Notaufnahme erreichen. Sollten sich die Symptome bis dahin nicht gebessert haben, wird die Atemluft vom Arzt mit Glukokortikoiden vernebelt, und zusätzlich 100%iger Sauerstoff gegeben. Schwere Komplikationen sind sehr selten. Die Symptome vergehen meist binnen Stunden, können aber während der Herbst- und Wintermonate häufig wiederkehren.
Wichtig ist in allen Fällen das Baby oder Kleinkind im Auge zu behalten, da diese weder Gefahren abschätzen, noch Probleme äußern können. Die Diagnostik ist in diesem Alter daher besonders schwierig, und in einem besonderen Maß von den Eltern abhängig.
Sport sollte bei Halsschmerzen unterlassen werden, da diese ein Symptom einer Grippe, eines Schnupfens oder einer Erkältung sein können. Um den Körper nicht unnötig zu belasten sollte deshalb bis zur Ausheilung auf Sport verzichtet werden. Kleinere Spaziergänge an der frischen Luft sind in Ordnung um den Kreislauf etwas anzuregen.
Lesen Sie mehr zum Thema unter: Sport bei Halsschmerzen
Halsschmerzen gehören zu den häufigsten Beschwerden beim Menschen. Kinder bis 15 Jahre sind wesentlich häufiger von Schmerzen im Hals betroffen als Erwachsene. Halsschmerzen stellen ein Symptom und keine Krankheit dar, dh viele unterschiedliche Erkrankungen können Halsschmerzen verursachen. Die Beschwerden äußern sich zunächst in einem rauen und kratzigen Hals.
Innerhalb weniger Stunden kann es zu zum Teil starken Schmerzen mit Schluckbeschwerden kommen. Fieber und Schwächegefühl begleiten die Halsschmerzen zeitweise. Zwischen 3-5 Tagen dauern Halsschmerzen in der Regel an.
Ursache können Entzündungen des Rachens und der Mandeln (siehe: Mandelentzündung) sein, die von Viren oder Bakterien verursacht werden. Eine besondere Bedeutung kommt der Infektion durch beta-hämolysierende Streptokokken zu. Eine Untergruppe, die sogenannten Streptokokken pyogenes oder GAS genannt, können einen gefährlichen Peritonsillarabszess verursachen. Des Weiteren können diese bei Nichtbehandlung auch in den Herzmuskel einwandern und eine gefährlichen Herzmuskelentzündung hervorrufen. Der Arzt wird neben der Inspektion des Halses mit Taschenlampe und Spatel auch das Betasten der Lymphknoten und eine Patientenbefragung durchführen. Gibt der Patient Fieber, das Fehlen von Husten, Belege auf den Mandeln sowie geschwollene Lymphknoten an, so ist eine Streptokokkeninfektion in 50-60% der Fälle wahrscheinlich.
Zur Bestätigung kann eine Blutuntersuchung und ein Abstrich ggf. mit einem Streptokokkenschnelltest durchgeführt werden. Stellt sich die Verdachtsdiagnose als richtig heraus, sollte eine antibiotische Therapie begonnen werden. Nur bei sich ständig wiederholenden Entzündungen des Rachenmandelbereiches sollte über eine Entfernung der Mandeln nachgedacht werden. Man ist somit mit dieser Art von Behandlung wesentlich zurückhaltender geworden als vor einigen Jahrzehnten.
In den meisten Fällen ist eine Behandlung der Halsschmerzen lediglich symptomatisch notwendig. So sollten die Patienten sich schonen, viel trinken, die Außenluft befeuchten sowie Halswickel anlegen und mit Salzwasser gurgeln und Salbei- oder Kamillentee trinken. Um entzündliche Faktoren zu behandeln kann Paracetamol oder Ibuprofen 2-3 Mal am Tag über einen Zeitraum von 3 Tagen eingenommen werden. In den allermeisten Fällen klingen Halsschmerzen nach 2-3 Tagen komplikationslos ab. In einigen wenigen Fällen kommt es zu komplizierten Verläufen mit Peritonsillarabszessen oder Krankheitserregerverschleppung mit Herzmuskelentzündungen.
Mehr zum Thema Halsschmerzen bei unserem Parnter