In medicine, the term rash (rash ) is understood to mean the sudden appearance of irritated and / or inflamed areas that appear on the surface of the skin. Skin rash in a baby can generally occur on any body surface, be accompanied by itching or the formation of dandruff and / or be painful.
Of the affected children, a strong, itchy rash is often felt to be very stressful and they are increasingly restless.
There can be many causes for the rash in a baby. These range from harmless changes that disappear after a few days to severe infectious diseases.
Especially in the area of the buttocks irritation caused by the urea contained in the urine is often a cause for the development of skin rash. By wearing diapers, the skin is exposed to the irritating urine and thus increasingly attacked. The result is the development of slight redness, rashes and sores. Even reactions to an allergenic substance (so-called allergen), which leads in the organism to a far-reaching immune reaction, can already occur in early childhood. In an allergen-induced rash, red spots may be accompanied by moderate to severe itching.
Rashes in the baby, however, may also be due to various infectious diseases. So-called maculopapular exanthema (nodular-blotchy rash) may be a symptom of acute measles or scarlet fever. Also with other typical teething troubles it can come to the training of rash with the baby.
Often, stork bites in babies are also considered a rash. However, these are harmless vasodilations, which usually disappear by themselves during the course of growth.
A baby may have an acne-like skin rash on the face at birth. Baby acne occurs in the majority of affected children only within the first weeks of life. Typically, the rash in the presence of baby acne has a central yellowish elevation ( pus ) with a reddish environment. This form of skin rash occurs in the face of the baby mostly in the area of the cheeks, forehead or chin. Some of the affected children develop similar rashes on their backs. The baby acne does not need to be treated in most cases and disappears after a few months by itself.
For many babies and toddlers, the first signs of a chickenpox infection are in the area of the face. The rash typically begins with the formation of small red dots that are often confused with insect bites. Within hours, these red dots develop into small fluid-filled bubbles. The typical rash of chickenpox infection spreads from the face of the affected baby over the entire body. The rash in the presence of chickenpox is usually very itchy. In addition, common symptoms such as fever, vomiting, headache, and an increased refusal to eat can often be observed in a baby with chickenpox.
Already in infancy and even in a baby can be a herpes infection by a conspicuous rash on the face in appearance. Typically, an infected baby develops tiny blisters or pustules around the lips. In addition, there may be swollen gums and open areas around the oral cavity.
The babies affected by this form of skin rash are often ingesting food due to tremendous pain.
The so-called milk scab is a rash of the baby, which manifests itself in the form of scaly deposits. In most cases, seborrheic dermatitis occurs as early as infancy, manifesting primarily directly on the scalp. However, cradle cap can cover the entire body of a baby and can occur on the face, neck, underarms and diaper area. The best way to treat this form of skin rash in a baby is to wash it regularly with lukewarm water and a soft brush.
The first signs of the presence of atopic dermatitis in the baby are often manifested by a dry, itchy rash. The altered areas of the skin are usually reddish and have a chapped appearance. Typically, this form of skin rash occurs in the baby's face (especially in the area of the carts), on the neck, on the elbows and at the back of the knees. Atopic dermatitis is most often a childhood disease (skin rash) that can grow until it reaches the age of teenage.
A rash in babies often occurs as an accompanying symptom of an infectious disease. The shape of the skin rash, the affected body parts and the time course show for some teething troubles very typical features.
In infants and babies the occurrence of skin rashes is not uncommon. Even on the face, a rash is not necessarily a cause for concern. In many cases, eye-catching facial rash in a baby is attributed to infection with viral agents. For example, it may be an infection with rubella virus. This is accompanied by a characteristic rash.
Rash around the neck is often caused by the viral infections already mentioned. But stress and heat can also cause a baby's rash around the neck. Allergic reactions can also be manifested by a rash in the form of itchy wheals or inflammatory changes in the skin.
Small pimples on the face, cheeks, forehead and chin are usually symptoms of a baby acne. This often disappears by itself.
In the face and neck area many newborns show the so-called milk scab. The rash appears in the form of a red area and later begins to dandruff.
The neonatal rash occurs two to five days after birth, forming reddish spots with yellowish pustules in the middle. In principle, this rash can occur on the entire body.
If it comes to reddish skin changes on the child's stomach, allergic reactions may be behind it as well as mechanical irritation (eg rubbing of the shirt on the back, etc.).
It can also cause a reaction of the skin to sweat.
Although drug intolerances are usually due to a skin swab on the trunk, they can sometimes only appear on the back.
It is important to pay attention to the shape of the reddish spots. So, converging, reddish skin changes are almost always a sign of a drug reaction, single reddish spots are more of an indication of allergies (eg, washing lotion or shampoo, etc.).
Fungal infections, which can also lead to reddening skin lesions, usually occur on body parts of the baby, where skin is on skin. In the inguinal or pobarous area, for example, a rash occurs much more frequently due to a fungus than on the back.
If the child has previously eaten something else or taken a new medicine, this almost always indicates an allergic reaction.
Rash in the area of the abdomen and the back can have different causes. He can express himself in the form of red spots on the back, for example.
The use of certain medications (eg penicillin ) can cause a rash in the baby. This usually spreads over the entire body trunk. The rash can occur directly or a few days later after taking medication. In addition, vomiting and diarrhea can occur. If these symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued after consultation with your doctor.
The shingles also appear in the area of the abdomen and the back and is a secondary infection with the chickenpox virus. It usually begins with mild fever, fatigue and pain in a circumscribed skin area on the trunk. Later, in the painful area, the single-sided and band-shaped rash occurs, which is formed by tightly standing blisters.
In the skin fungus-induced ringworm, the rash consists of one or more rings that itch strongly. The rash usually starts with a small area and widens over time.
The pox virus can trigger a skin rash in the area of the abdomen and the chest - the mollusc warts.
The skin rash in mollusc warts appears in the form of round white or pink grouped elevations of the skin. These can be provided with a depression in their middle or an egghead. Scratching should be avoided to avoid inflammation.
Rashes on the buttocks are very common in babies. One distinguishes an allergic from a mechanical cause. Even infectious causes can lead to a rash of the butt.
Allergies can arise on used diapers or various substances, lotions or shampoos. Mostly a short time after skin contact a reddish and often itchy rash develops in the baby. The child starts screaming and is restless.
Mechanically caused by strong rubbing of the diaper, etc. come to a reddish rash. As an infection-related skin rash, the fungal infection is very common in babies. Mostly in the groin or at the buttocks a fungal infection leads to very strong itching and burning, the skin in the Pobereich is very red, the babies are extremely restless and scream a lot. The diagnosis is usually carried out as a gaze diagnosis or through a skin swab, which then detects the corresponding fungus. The treatment is done by fungal ointments.
Rashes in the area of the abdomen occur relatively frequently in toddlers and babies and have very different causes. One possible cause is drug incompatibility.
An antibiotic allergy is often the reason for a rash. This syndrome, also known as drug eruption, usually manifests itself a few minutes to hours after antibiotic use. Especially on the marketed under the trade name Amoxicillin antibiotic ( penicillin ) children often react with rash.
Since babies can not swallow tablets, the antibiotic is always given as a juice. The first symptoms occur shortly after taking on the back and stomach, sometimes on the arms, legs or hands. Typical of a drug eruption is the rosy to deep red skin and the blotchy confluent skin discoloration. Sometimes it can come to accompanying itching, which is signaled by a restless and screaming child.
If the typical patches in the skin area appear after taking the antibiotics, the drug should be discontinued very quickly and switched to another drug. However, this should always be done in consultation with the treating pediatrician. It may also come under a drug intolerance to other concomitant symptoms, such as shortness of breath, severe sweating and discomfort. In the case of babies, drug intolerance is in most cases limited to a rash.
Infant immunization is one of the most important steps in disease prevention and can prevent the onset of serious illnesses. For this reason, the recommended vaccinations of the baby should be carried out as soon as possible. Many parents, however, are afraid of the side effects possibly caused by a vaccine. In general, however, it can be stated that the risk of developing serious side effects is much lower than the secondary diseases caused by an infection. For this reason, the vaccination should not be omitted for fear of side effects under any circumstances. In most cases, after vaccination in the baby, if any, only slight side effects occur. These are usually easy to treat and pose no danger to the baby.
The most common side effects that occur after giving a vaccine to the baby include the rash. Changes in the skin can occur in this context directly in the area of the puncture site or distributed over the entire body. It is most common for a short time after vaccination and local redness and slight swelling. While these are painless in most cases, they can be associated with moderate pain. In addition, some babies and toddlers react with fever and agitation after administering a vaccine dose.
Especially in the combination vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough, a local rash in the area of the injection site may occur. This vaccination rarely causes discomfort and / or the development of fever. The vaccination against polio (polio) can cause a locally limited rash in the baby.
The classic vaccine against mumps, measles and rubella is a so-called "combined preparation". This means that these three diseases can be prevented by a common vaccine dose. In general, the mumps-measles-rubella vaccine is easily tolerated by a baby and side effects are extremely rare. Nevertheless, in about 5% of vaccinated children a harmless rash can be observed. This rash can affect different parts of the body, but it stops completely within a few days without initiating any treatment.
If a skin rash occurs after bathing, this can have different causes. On the one hand, an allergic reaction, eg to bath additives, can lead to a rash of the skin or an overheating of the body.
When overheating the body does not manage to break down the heat generated by the bathing, which he then tries to ensure by a widening of the vessels. Due to the dilation of the blood vessels more blood gets into the skin, which then turns red. The purpose is to bring more blood to the skin surface, so that the blood cools there.
Skin redness after bathing are quite normal and indicate only a borderline or too high water temperature and too long a bath time. If you look at the baby's red skin on the body while bathing, the bathing process should be stopped. As a rule, the red spots on the body disappear after a few minutes or hours.
The heat-induced skin rash almost never leads to an accompanying itching. If the reddish skin changes come about through an allergic reaction to the bath additives, the babies usually cry and scream because of the accompanying itching.
The treatment of the skin rash due to the heat is done by skin cooling, or by antiallergic gels, if an allergic component is behind the rash. In this case, treatment with Fenistil Gel may be considered.
Even when teething can lead to rashes in the form of slightly reddened cheeks and the skin around the mouth. However, if the rashes are larger, elsewhere, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever or tiredness, it is usually due to another cause.
However, it may come during teething under certain circumstances to infections and rashes or a rupture of atopic dermatitis in the baby. This is mainly because the baby's immune system is toned down during teething. The body "focuses" on the growth of the teeth.
If the baby experiences a skin rash due to too dry skin, this is usually not allergic. The skin needs a certain level of moisture, which should not be undercut. The moisture of the skin makes it supple, more robust and less susceptible to infection.
Dry skin becomes chapped, itchy, reddening and sometimes painful. Especially in winter, when the skin is exposed to constant heating air, it often comes to a drying out of the skin. The skin then becomes more sensitive, it begins to itch to dandruff. Sometimes the moisture level of the skin may drop so much that skin rash develops.
Fortunately, the treatment is done with simple means that quickly fix the cause. A skin rash caused by dry skin uses moisturizing ointments or creams that make the skin smoother and less sensitive to pain. If the skin receives moisture, the skin irritations and rashes are also declining. For very frequent dry skin, it is also important to pay attention to a sufficient amount of drinking.
Rashes in the baby, which occur especially after high heat, are not allergic, but overheating.
Especially if the sweat produced is no longer sufficient to lower the body temperature, the body tries to bring as much blood as possible into the overheated area by dilating the blood vessels. This becomes clear on certain, then reddish-colored areas of the body. Seen from afar, the picture of a blotchy skin change can then be seen.
The first step should be to put the child in the shade and in a cool place as soon as possible. If you do not do this, there is a risk of sunstroke. Furthermore, cooling cloths etc. can be placed on the reddened body. This should restore the usual temperature of the body quickly.
If there is a rash immediately after exposure to the sun, there can always be a sun allergy behind it.
Typical of a sun allergy are red spots, which develop after a short time of sun exposure and can sometimes be associated with itching. In principle, every skin area of the body can be affected. Most of the time, the areas exposed to the sun are affected.
First, you should take the baby out of the sun. After a few minutes, the red skin changes will regress. Furthermore, cooling pads can be placed on the rash.
Human skin is very sensitive to too high a dose of UV rays. Adult persons, as well as babies who spend a long period of unprotected exposure to the sun, often develop a sunburn.
For the skin surface of a baby, however, the sun and its outgoing UV rays are many times more dangerous. Excessive exposure to the sun may cause a rash in a baby for this reason. However, this rash does not necessarily have to be triggered by the UV radiation. More often, small children and babies are responding to the overheating caused by staying in the sun with the development of heat pimples (sweat bubbles). This form of skin rash is a minor irritation to the skin, especially in the area of the neck, underarms and at the edges of the diaper. First and foremost the natural folds of the skin and those parts of the body where the contact between the clothing and the surface of the skin causes friction. The direct cause of the development of such a rash in the baby is a combination of hot environment (sun) and high humidity. In addition, excessive sweating may favor the development of heatpickles. Heat picks are not dangerous even with a baby. However, it should be noted that this form of rash is an indication that a baby has been in the sun for too long or is simply too warm.
In addition, a rash in a baby that appears after sitting in the sun may be indicative of the presence of a so-called "sun allergy". However, the sun allergy is not comparable to a classic allergy. As a rule, the sun-induced rash in a baby is due to increased sensitivity to UV-A radiation. In rare cases, even UV-B rays may be responsible for the development of a skin rash. In most babies and toddlers, the allergy to the sun is manifested by reddened rash and the appearance of small wheals or blisters. The rash that is typical of the sun allergy is usually very itchy and occurs only a few hours after staying in the sun. Typical locations for this type of rash are the shoulders, forearms, neck, backs of hands and face.
The best prevention of a sun-induced rash in a baby is a slow acclimatization to UV radiation. Especially for small children, the principle is that the midday sun should be shunned and especially photosensitive body regions should be covered. In addition, preventive beta-carotene tablets can be taken. The use of this medicine should take place over a period of approximately 8 to 12 weeks. A baby who develops a conspicuous skin rash for the first time after a stay in the sun should be promptly introduced to a specialist in paediatrics.
The basis of a suitable therapy for skin rashes in the baby is the elucidation of the exact cause of the disease and the appropriate skin care in the baby. If it is an allergic skin rash, it is essential to avoid the allergen in the future and to prevent the immune reaction with appropriate drugs. Rash in the baby that results from a pure skin condition can usually be treated with ointments and creams.
If an infection or an organ disease is the cause of the onset of the rash, it must primarily be targeted to the pathogen or the underlying disease treated. However, many of the typical childhood illnesses are viral infections. As a result, it is usually easy to wait and the treatment options are relatively low.
For skin care and against possible itching also help many herbal remedies.
Rash is generally associated with a reddening of the skin surface which may occur in the form of small red spots or area coverage. In medical terminology, this phenomenon is referred to as rash.
A rash in the baby can occur on just about any part of the body and sometimes even spread to the mucous membranes in the mouth, nose and the genital area. In most cases, the development of a rash in the baby is a sign of a pure skin disease. But also in the baby, irritated and / or reddened areas of the skin may be a first symptom of an allergic reaction or an organ disease.
In childhood, rash can be observed quite often. In the rarest cases is a serious disease behind the occurrence of the rash.
If a rash occurs in the baby, it makes sense to promptly find out the cause of the skin reaction and consult a pediatrician. The most important point in the diagnosis is a detailed conversation between the parents and the attending pediatrician.
In this conversation, existing pre-existing conditions, current drug revenues, risk factors for various infectious diseases and other issues that may be the cause of the rash in the baby are asked. After the subsequent assessment of the affected skin, it may be necessary in some cases to carry out further investigations.
The pediatrician may have to send in smears of the affected skin, tissue samples (biopsy) or blood samples for laboratory diagnostics. In case of suspected allergic rash in the baby, it is also advisable to carry out an allergy test. Especially in these cases it is clearly reflected how important a comprehensive medical history is, because an allergy test can only be carried out relatively specific to a few possible allergens.
a - Healthy skin
b - Sub-corneal pustules
(Pustule - under the cornea)
c - intraepithelial pustules
(Pustule - splits the epidermis)
d - epidermis nodules
e - dermis
Epidermis - epidermis
(1 and 2.)