A cold is a bacterial or viral infection that causes colds, hoarseness, a scratchy throat, sore throat, coughing, and possibly fever.
Especially in the winter months, many patients get a cold and therefore need medicines for the common cold. Here, the patient can resort to various medicines for cold. Simple home remedies are particularly popular, but there are also various over-the-counter medicines for colds from the pharmacy to prescription drugs, which can only be obtained with the help of a prescription from a doctor in a pharmacy.

Home remedies for cold symptoms

In winter, many patients are plagued by a cold. Above all home remedies as medicines for cold are very popular because they are cheap, usually already in the house are available and additionally often help as effectively as a chemically produced drug. Depending on the symptoms, the patient may use various home remedies as cold remedies.

If a patient has a runny nose and the nose is constantly "running" or that the nose feels clogged and the patient feels that he / she can no longer breathe, the patient may try to inhale over hot water (40-65 ° C). Here, the hot water is poured into a bowl, possibly added to another substance such as salt, pine needles or essential oils. Then the patient bends over the bowl and breathes in the hot steam coming from the surface of the water. It is important here not to touch the water, otherwise it can cause burns. To increase the effect, the patient should also put a towel over his head and bowl, so that the steam gets directly into the nose of the patient and can not be additionally distributed in the room. This inhalation is a good home remedy and medication for cold and especially against the common cold during a cold.

Even with a strong cough and especially with a dry cough this home remedy is very suitable as a remedy for cold and its symptoms. It should be noted that infants and young children under no circumstances inhale (inhale) menthol-containing additives, since otherwise it may lead to a respiratory arrest and the child can die from it. Therefore, the inhalation of the hot steam as a home remedy and medication for cold, especially for adults and adolescents recommended.

Other home remedies and medicines for colds are among other different teas. Especially sage tea, chamomile tea or fennel tea are very suitable as home remedies and medicines for cold, so that even larger amounts (about 1 liter of tea per day is optimal) can be taken.

Sage can also be taken as a lollipop, which makes it especially excellent for coughing. But even in sore throats and hoarseness help tea and saline slippers as a home remedy and medication for cold and their symptoms.

Some patients, on the other hand, feel better in hoarseness when they put a cooling envelope around their necks or suck a piece of ice. However, it should be noted that this home remedy or medication for cold symptoms only improves hoarseness, but could make other symptoms such as coughing worse.

In case of fever, the most important home remedy is strict bed rest for at least 2-3 days until the symptoms have completely subsided. Another simple home remedy fever is the calf wrap, as it cools the patient a bit and thus relieves the symptoms. However, since fever is a very important and necessary defense process of the body, the fever should not be constantly tried to cool down. After a few days, the body regulates the body temperature by itself and thus home remedies, fewer medicines for cold in case of fever are recommended.

Prescription drugs

In addition to many home remedies, there are also over-the-counter medicines for cold that can be purchased at the pharmacy.

For example, if a patient suffers from a runny nose that feels very swollen and impermeable, various nasal sprays can help. First, there is a nasal spray, which consists only of sea salt and a water solution. This nasal spray is an over-the-counter cold medicine and can be purchased at a drugstore or drugstore. Furthermore, there are also dexpanthenol-containing nasal sprays or ointments (also known under the name Bepanthen®), which can be used as over-the-counter medications. On the other hand, there are also nose drops with a salt water mixture, which are ideal medicine especially for smaller children.
In addition, herbal medications (Sinupret® forte or Sinupret® drops) can also help with a blocked nose.

If there is a sore throat, so the patient can receive various drugs in the pharmacy. Good over-the-counter remedies for colds and the resulting sore throat include various lozenges. Some of these tablets also contain an analgesic, such as the local painkiller ( anesthetic ) lidocaine. These over-the-counter medicines are especially popular when the patient has severe dysphagia.

However, if a patient additionally suffers from severe irritable cough, then additional medicines should be taken in addition. Among other things, there are various medical healing teas, which contain sage, thyme or various herbs. These can be purchased over the counter in a pharmacy.

Furthermore, there are different lotions, which are then applied to the chest and back. These lotions often contain sage or peppermint as essential oils and thus have a stimulating effect on the mucus solution. In addition, they reduce the coughing and make sure that the nose is free.
Various cough syrups with various ingredients such as ribwort or ivy can be purchased in the pharmacy without prescription. These cough syrups make it easier for the patient to breathe, and the mucus dissolves and coughs up. It is important in this case that the patient drinks enough because the cough syrup can ensure that the mucus enters into a bond with the water and thus is also liquefied.

If a patient also has a fever, various antipyretic analgesics such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen are available. It is important that the patient pays attention to the exact dosage, otherwise, in the worst case, serious damage to the liver may occur. Furthermore, it is important that the patient remembers that the fever is a natural defense process of the body, which one should not necessarily prevent. Here, the exact consultation with the family doctor is very important, as this can decide in individual cases, whether antipyretic means are useful or whether the patient should better end the fever by natural means.

Medicines prescribed by the doctor

In addition to many home remedies and over-the-counter medicines for colds, there are also few medicines that a patient can only acquire if he visits the family doctor and he issues him a prescription for the drug. Generally, however, prescription drugs are very rarely needed in case of a cold. Especially antibiotics should not be given in a simple cold. However, if a patient also has tonsillitis (tonsillitis), it may be necessary for the patient to need an antibiotic. There are also nasal sprays with the active ingredient xylometazoline or oxymetazoline. Although these are over-the-counter medicines that decongest the nasal mucous membranes, the medicines should be prescribed by a doctor as there is an addictive potential. This means that the patient should only use these nasal sprays exactly as prescribed and never for more than 7 days. The nasal mucous gets used to the nasal spray and without the use of the nasal spray is no longer free. Therefore, the exact agreement with the doctor makes sense here. There are no other medications that should or can only be prescribed by the doctor. The majority of medicines for cold treatment, the patient can thus get yourself in the pharmacy or in drugstores, but should be consulted in case of warning symptoms, such as high fever or prolonged fatigue, a doctor.

Medicines during pregnancy and lactation

In general, as little medication as possible should be taken during pregnancy and lactation. If, during pregnancy or breastfeeding, a patient has a cold, it is still possible to treat the common cold without damaging the unborn child. As a general rule, every medication and every home remedy should be discussed with the family doctor, gynecologist or pharmacist so that any risk to the unborn baby can be minimized.

However, there are several medicines for cold that can be taken during pregnancy and breastfeeding, which are less medications than home remedies. Above all, it is important that all menthol-containing (including peppermint) teas and essential oils should be avoided. These medications may cause the baby to become breathless with the menthol-containing substances. The medication for cold during pregnancy and breastfeeding should therefore be based on natural and should be discussed with the doctor. For example, seawater-like solutions that are contained in nasal sprays or nasal drops or can be inhaled, safe for the welfare of the mother and the child. Most teas such as chamomile tea, ginger tea or sage tea can be easily used for pregnant women. The same applies to sage sweets. However, it is important that in cases of fever, medicines such as paracetamol or ibuprofen are administered only after careful consultation with a specialist and only under consideration of the benefit-risk.

Medicines for cold and runny nose

Especially in the winter months, many patients become increasingly ill and need medication for colds and runny nose. There is a whole range of possibilities here, many of which are based on home remedies or over-the-counter medications. The most suitable in this case are steam inhalation baths. In addition, an essential oil (thyme, pine ...) or sea salt is added to a bowl of about 45-70 ° hot water. Then the patient breathes in and out of the bowl for about 10 minutes, with a towel over his head preventing the water vapor from leaking into the room. As a result, the nasal mucosa swells slightly and the secretion, so the mucus that is in the nose, liquefies better.

Nasal sprays or nose drops are good medicines for colds and colds. There are different possibilities. For one thing, there are nasal sprays or nose drops with sea salt water, which are not addictive. On the other hand, there are nasal sprays and nose drops with the active ingredient xylometazoline or oxymetazoline. These drugs ensure that the nasal mucosa is contracted (contracted), which is why these drugs have a decongestant against cold and runny nose and clear the nose very quickly. Precisely because of this effect, however, it can happen that the nose gets used to this effect (adaptation). This then causes the patient after a short time no longer can breathe through the nose without nasal spray and always needed higher doses of the nasal spray. Therefore, this drug should be used for cold and cold for a maximum of 7 days, otherwise it comes to the dreaded adaptation. To make the cold somewhat fluid, the patient can additionally rub with lotions containing, for example, peppermint. Care should also be taken to ensure a sufficient supply of drinking water, with the help of sage or chamomile tea.

Medicines for cold and cough

Especially in the winter months, many patients get colds. There are various cold and cough medications that can be used to help the patient recover and get fit quickly.

For healthy patients, it is especially important to drink about 2 liters of tea per day, as this results in a mucus-thinning process, which ensures that the patient has less cough, as the mucus liquefies on its own. But there are also some medicines for cold and cough.

On the one hand, there are different lotions, which contain, for example, eucalyptus, which can be applied to the chest and back. In addition, there are various cough syrup, for example, with ribwort, which are suitable as a medicament for cold and cough, as long as the patient drinks at least 2-3 liters per day, as well as the cough syrup ensures that the mucus liquefies and this is only possible when the patient drinks enough fluid.

Also, steam inhalations, for example, with thyme or sage are suitable as medicines for cold and cough and can also be repeated several times. There are also natural ivy or eucalyptus medications, as well as N-acetylcysteine, potassium iodide or ambroxol chemical medications, which can be used as cold and cough medicines, speeding up the disease process and helping the patient recover faster.

Medicines for children

Children and infants often suffer from a cold or a flu infection during the winter months. In order to alleviate the symptoms and promote recovery, there are various medicines for children against colds. It is important for infants, however, that they take no menthol-containing medicines for the common cold, as it can otherwise cause the larynx to contract and thus cause severe respiratory distress. Generally, however, there are many cold remedies that can be used on children and infants. Oils, nasal sprays and nasal drops containing sea salt-containing solution are very suitable for this.

Chemical drugs should be avoided, as there are few studies on the effects of chemical drugs on infants. Even with water bath inhalations, which can be used in children as medicines for cold, only water baths should be inhaled with sea salt, since essential oils can also lead to a cramping of the larynx. If there is a fever during the cold, it is very important to inform the doctor on the one hand and on the other hand should not be prescribed without consultation with the doctor Paracetamol ®, as this drug can quickly lead to liver poisoning, especially in infants. It is better here than medication calf wrap, as these cool the child slightly but not artificially lower the fever and thus not affect the disease process.

Even with cough syrups, it is important to pay close attention to which ingredients are contained in the cough syrup and whether this is suitable as a medication for colds in children and infants. For example, preparations containing peppermint should always be avoided. Therefore, it is generally said that in case of a cold, the medicines for the child should be discussed with the pediatrician, so that it does not lead to unwanted complications.

Cold and Flu | Medicine (May 2020).

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