Deep-seated sensitivity, self-perception, proprioceptive training

From the Latin: "proprius = eigen"; "recipere = record"

English: proprioception


Proprioception in sports strength training has been receiving ever-increasing attention in recent years. Although many questions remained unanswered on this type of training, many sports providers and coaches relied on this form of deep-sensitive muscle gain . Proprioception in the field of orthopedic shoe inserts is well-known, as children with movement anomalies were supplied with this form of orthopedic insoles and achieved successes in the stability of movement. In the field of physiotherapy and rehabilitation of movement disorders, proprioception is a well-known method compared to the use of insoles.

The Propriorezeption belongs to the Viszerozeption (feedback of internal organs) to the group of the body's own feedback. The perception from the environment is called Exteroception.

How does proprioception work?

PNF ( proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation ) is understood to mean a treatment system that sets muscular impulses on the basis of afferent nerve pathways in response to feedback from the body's own signals.

Simplified: In a muscle contraction, the conduction of stimuli from the brain to the musculature takes place via so-called efferent pathways. The feedback from the musculature to the central nervous system takes place via the so-called afferent pathways. This feedback is deliberately used by shaky documents to the instability of the entire system. The athlete, patient is thus in imbalance and must specifically on the feedback (afferent) keep the body balance or regain. EMG measurements (electromyography) have shown that in this type of muscular load, the muscle fibers in the muscle reach deep into the area.


In comparison to lower organisms, humans have so-called kinesthetic receptors, which enable us to transmit stimuli from the joints, joint capsules, tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin and musculature to the CNS. Movement corrections during movement are possible in human movement. Together with the vestibular apparatus ( vestibular apparatus ), these analyzers provide the body with feedback on the position, movement, posture and acceleration in space. In addition, feedback on the environment is passed on to the CNS via the Afferent Railways. These are eg temperature effects on the skin. Feedback of the internal organs occurs via enteroceptive stimuli via the afferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system. The stimuli of the affine-rent pathways are processed and forwarded in the CNS via a switch position by efferent pathways to the organ of success. These can be:

  • For movement ( somato - motor - nerves )
  • Internal organs ( vizero - motor - nerves )
  • Glands ( sekreto - motor - nerves )


If you walk closed-eyed over a changing ground, you do not necessarily fall over. The feedback of the afferents in the sole of the foot and knee joints ensure a compensatory movement

Proprioception and diabetes

In diabetes mellitus, there is often peripheral neuropathy, in which both the efferents and the afferents are impaired in their functionality. This increases the risk of falling. The proprioception does not work and the gait behavior is thus massively impaired. Therefore, especially the optical analyzer plays a central role in walking. In patients with cerebral movement disorder, the afferent analyzer no longer functions completely, and as a result of the excessive muscle tone, only insufficient information is obtained from the organ of success (muscle, tendon, etc.) to the CNS. Simplified: Due to the increased standing on the ball of the foot, not enough feedback can be given from the sole of the foot, which leads to disturbances in the motor system. However, proprioception can be improved in this case.

The simplest example

The simplest example of proprioception is the self-reflex in the knee joint. A slight impact on the patellar tendon below the kneecap causes a contraction in the thigh muscle. Why ? The patellar tendon is stretched passively, thus stretching the associated muscle (quadriceps femoris muscle). Muscle spindles in this muscle register this stretch (afference) and cause a contraction (efference).

Where is proprioception used?

As already described above, physiotherapeutic rehabilitation involves the targeted use of proprioception in order to specifically use feedback from the body. In orthopedic shoe care, especially in diabetics, but also non-diabetics often use the improved feedback of the soles by special pads in the sole. In addition, proprioception is used in modern weight training in order to develop the muscular system in a more targeted manner through the body's own feedback. In addition, a proproceptive strength training leads to the development of movement coordination.

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