definition

Pain in the cervix is ​​an unpleasant sensation in the area of ​​the uterus, which anatomically protrudes into the upper part of the vagina and passes into the cervix. The cervix serves to close and protect the uterus. It can, as potentially any area of ​​the body, hurt and malfunction.

Often the pains are not only pain that is limited to the cervix but complaints that involve the adjacent organs. There are many potential causes of cervical pain or abdominal pain in general.

causes

Cervical pain has many possible causes. For example, inflammatory processes in the abdomen may involve the cervix due to anatomical proximity. Thus, inflammation of the vagina (cervicitis) or the cervix (cervicitis) can be transmitted to the cervix.

Also, mechanical processes can lead to its irritation, with the smallest micro-injuries of the tissue lead to pain. This may be the case, for example, in gynecological examinations where the cervix is ​​penetrated, such as the PAP smear as part of cervical cancer screening or a womb mirroring.

In some cases, sexual intercourse is the cause of the pain. Here, the reason may be a hardened cervix or a position in which the vagina is penetrated particularly deep and thereby the penis pushes against the cervix and irritates it.

In addition, the cervix may be painful during the premenstrual syndrome (PMS), with more symptoms usually being added and not being called the cervix by the patients as a source of pain.

During pregnancy

The cervix serves to close and protect the amniotic sac during pregnancy. Due to the burden on it and increasing weight as pregnancy progresses, pain may sometimes occur, some of which are movement-dependent.

If the symptoms persist, it is important to consult with the attending gynecologist as it may be a (beginning) cervical disability. Here, the cervix shortens prematurely and begins to open, which increases the risk of premature birth. If the doctor detects such a weakness of the cervix, more frequent check-ups must be made and, if necessary, a cerclage be used, which stabilizes the cervix again.

In traffic

Occasionally there is pain on the cervix during intercourse. The risk is increased in positions in which the penis penetrates particularly deep into the vagina or the male genitals is too large in relation to the vagina.
The female cycle also plays a role, since the cervix varies in strength depending on the time of the period. If he is hard and closed and the penis repeatedly hits, it can lead to discomfort. In part, then the man is also affected by pain. One and the same position with the same partner does not always have to be painful, but may be subject to cyclical fluctuations.

Before the period / before ovulation

The cervix, like the whole uterus, is subject to periodic changes, while its consistency changes steadily during the monthly cycle:

  • with the onset of fertile days and with approaching ovulation, the cervix is ​​soft and slightly open to be prepared for possible conception.
  • after the period it becomes harder again and closes.

These cyclical changes make some women uncomfortable. In addition, Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) may also cause cervical and abdominal pain a few days before the period.

Pain after a cervical examination

Occasionally, during or after a cervical exam in the area under investigation, you may experience discomfort or pain. This is often an irritation of the cervix, but may also adjacent tissues such as the deeper sections of the vagina or cervix be affected and cause discomfort. It can lead to micro injuries of the tissue, which cause these. As a rule, the pain does not last long and stops with the recovery of the mechanically irritated tissue.

Pain after scraping

Occasional uterine pain and / or abdominal pain may be present after uterine reaming. These are usually irritation symptoms.

During the scraping process, the attending physician must pass the medical instruments through the vagina that pass through the cervix in order to access the uterine cavity via the cervix. The cervix and cervix are widened in order to insert the instruments. In the course of this, the tissue is irritated and it can also lead to the smallest tissue injury in the area of ​​the cervix, which may be partly responsible for the discomfort after scraping.

This pain usually lasts for several days and is often associated with minor bleeding. However, these bleedings are not due to the cervix. The lining of the uterus becomes heavily used during scraping and bleeds for a few days.

diagnosis

Diagnosis to assess and detect pain in the cervix begins with anamnesis, that is, a detailed conversation in which the doctor gets a first impression of the symptoms. The cervix can then be examined manually, with the examiner inserting one or two fingers into the vagina in order to feel the condition around the width of the cervix and to look for abnormalities. Furthermore, the gynecologist with the help of medical instruments (specula) and a light source can view the vagina and the cervix and thus discover possible changes. If the examiner finds abnormalities, a colposcopy can also be performed, using a microscope in addition to the light source. This allows the tissue to be examined more closely.

Accompanying symptoms

The cervix, which protrudes into the upper part of the vagina, passes into the cervix and is therefore part of it. These anatomical relationships often produce an interplay of symptoms, whereby, for example, complaints in the area of ​​the vagina can also radiate to the cervix, and vice versa.

Often, the pain can not be determined on the cervix alone, but the patient generally complains of abdominal discomfort, without being able to name the cervix as the exact and sole cause. The cervix may cause discomfort in the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) prior to the actual period, with any associated symptoms contributing. These include, for example, nausea, constipation or diarrhea, abnormal eating habits or mood swings. In pain after gynecological surgery such as the scraping may come as an additional symptom in addition to minor bleeding.

treatment

Depending on the cause of the underlying pain in the cervix, there are different treatment options:

  • For example, pain after a gynecological examination or surgery can provide relief and rest.
  • In the case of inflammatory changes, antibiotic treatment may take several days. For this period, mild painkillers may be helpful.
  • If the pain occurs during intercourse, it is advisable to try other positions to make the act more pleasant for both partners. It can also be helpful to try and find out if sexual intercourse is less painful at some other time due to the cyclical changes in the consistency of the cervix.
  • During pregnancy, pain in the area of ​​the cervix should necessarily be clarified by a doctor in order to detect a possible cervix weakness at an early stage.

duration

The duration of pain in the cervix is ​​very individual and different. Above all, the cause of the pain plays a decisive role, which can last for several days in an inflammatory process, despite antibiotic treatment. For pain, in turn, which intercourse dependent, the complaints usually only amount to the period of the act itself or slightly beyond.

For long-lasting, unclear complaints should always be consulted a gynecologist. In case of complaints during pregnancy, extra caution is required.


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