dizziness

Synonyms in the broader sense

Medical: Vertigo

Shapes: Lagerungsschwindel, rotary swindle, Schwankschwindel,

English: Vertigo, Dizziness

Definition dizziness

Dizziness is the contradictory information of various sensory organs to the brain. It involves information from the eyes, the balance organ of the ear (ear) and the position sensors (sensors, proprioceptors) of the musculature, the tendons and the joints.

In the healthy, the information from these organs is sent to the brain, processed and made aware of the situation in which the body is currently located. You can even artificially "turn off" an organ by, for example, closing your eyes and moving from a standing to a lying position. The eyes did not notice the change, but still we perceive that our body is now horizontal.

Anyone who suffers from dizziness describes that he has the feeling of wavering or turning. He does not move himself, but the objects and the environment itself move around him.

Dizziness or drowsiness?

Dizziness is popularly very imprecise and used for a variety of mood disorders. The terms "vertigo" used in the English language for the actual systemic dizziness and "dizziness" for the unsystematic dizziness or dizziness give a more detailed subdivision.

Systemic dizziness (vertigo) is the cause in the region of the organ of equilibrium, in the area of ​​the brainstem or in the area of ​​the cerebellum. Patients with systemic dizziness report a vertigo with an apparent rotational movement of their environment, a lift dizziness, a feeling in an elevator, being lifted or lowered, or a shudder with the sensation of losing the ground underfoot.

In unsystematic dizziness, the cause is found outside the equilibrium system. Patients with unsystematic dizziness report black-eye, uncertainty and dizziness.

Which dizziness forms are there?

  • Attack fraud Permanent dizziness
  • Dizziness with hearing problems
  • vertigo
  • vertigo
  • positional vertigo
  • Dizziness feeling

Causes of dizziness

Dizziness can be caused by the following factors or diseases:

  • Blood pressure / circulation (circulation and dizziness)
  • Headache (headache and dizziness)
  • Nausea (dizziness with nausea)
  • Basilar-type migraine
  • Pregnancy (dizziness in pregnancy)
  • Dizziness due to anxiety / stress
  • Injury or tension of the neck muscles
  • Disease or injury to the cervical spine (cervical spine syndrome)
  • Beningner paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPLS) / benign positional vertigo
  • Dizziness due to diseases of the ear
  • Diseases of the inner ear ( vestibulopathy )
  • Meniere's disease
  • Inflammation of the balance nerves ( vestibular neuritis )
  • Thyroid gland as a cause of dizziness
  • perilymph fistula
  • Space-demanding processes, tumors, injuries, fractures (fractures) of the inner ear
  • Brain tumors
  • Diseases of the field of neurology / internal medicine
  • Dizziness by alcohol

More information on the subject : Dizziness causes

Dizziness is not a rare symptom. More than ten percent of all GP visits are due to dizziness. Especially in the elderly, dizziness can occur frequently.
Dizziness is a kind of alarm signal from our body, which indicates that something in the brain or our organ of balance is not working properly. In order for our sense of balance to function well, our brain and our inner-ear balance must be well supplied with oxygen and nutrients, ie, be well-supplied.
For this reason, for example, low blood pressure can cause dizziness.
Often it comes by a neurological cause to dizziness. But even drugs, alcohol, other underlying diseases or mental stress can lead to dizziness.

In dizziness, one must also think of the organ of balance, which lies in the inner ear. Disturbances in the inner ear can lead, for example, to the so-called Meniere's disease. The cause is not clear yet. Menière typically has tinnitus (buzzing ear noise), dizziness, and a one-sided hearing loss.

Even with an inflammation of the balance nerves, the so-called vestibular neuritis, dizziness appears as a symptom. Typically, the dizziness of vestibular neuritis manifests in the form of a permanent vertigo, which can last for days to weeks, which of course is very stressful for the patients. In addition, it often comes to a pronounced tendency to fall, nausea, as well as standing and gait insecurity. At the latest after about four to five weeks, the dizziness then sets again, either because the treatment has struck or because the healthy side has replaced the function of the sick side.
Furthermore, dizziness can also be caused by bilateral vestibulopathy. In this disease is on both sides of the organ of balance, and parts of the balance nerves damaged. The ultimate underlying cause is usually unknown. Patients may thus have a swaying and a vertigo, which is often triggered in certain movements. This is often accompanied by a visual disturbance (dizziness and blurred vision). The symptoms worsen additionally in the dark. Sitting and lying, patients have fewer symptoms.

In addition to the equilibrium organ, which sits in the inner ear, the ear itself, as a cause of dizziness in question. For example, this can occur as part of an inner ear inflammation (labyrinthitis). Inner ear infection may also be accompanied by earache, fever, fatigue, unilateral deafness or tinnitus. Most of the time an inner ear infection is caused by viruses or bacteria. Rarely also tumors or toxins lead to an inner ear inflammation.

Partial is also a middle ear infection in an inner ear infection. In the case of middle ear inflammation, dizziness typically does not occur and should always be considered a warning sign. In this case, the ear, nose and throat doctor should be consulted in any case.

Even tumors of the balance nerves can lead to dizziness. The most typical tumor for this is the so-called acoustic neuroma. Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor presenting with the hallmarks of unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. It often comes through a traumatic brain injury, which is often caused by a car accident or the like, a dizziness.

Generally one differentiates a peripheral from a central vertigo. The classification of peripheral dizziness includes, for example, Meniere's disease and vestibular neuritis, which are causes that do not originate directly in the brain.
In the case of central dizziness, on the other hand, the cause lies in the brain. This can be, for example, in the nerve cores responsible for the organ of equilibrium, center of equilibrium or in the cerebellum. The causes of central dizziness are mainly circulatory disorders in the brain, as in connection with a stroke.
In addition to circulatory disorders but also inflammation in the brain, as in multiple sclerosis and tumors in question. A typical characteristic of a central dizziness is that it manifests itself in a fluctuating manner and does not typically occur in the form of a rotary vertigo, as in the case of peripheral dizziness.

Some people who suffer from migraine attacks also have a dizzy spell, which is called vestibular migraine.

If it is not the organ of balance or an underlying disease or the like that is responsible for the dizziness, but the psyche, it is called a non-organic, psychogenic, or even somatoform vertigo. This occurs, for example, in the context of anxiety disorders.

If the dizziness is accompanied by dizziness and blurred vision in the form of blurred or double vision, this can also be triggered by incorrectly adjusted glasses. This is sometimes accompanied by headaches and a feeling of pressure in the eyes. This is called ocular dizziness.

Dizziness can also occur as a side effect of medication. Typical of this are tranquilizers and sleeping pills. Furthermore, dizziness may also occur with medications such as antidepressants, antiepileptics, muscle relaxants, antibiotics, diuretic medications, and medications for the cardiovascular system.

A common cause of temporarily occurring dizziness is of course the alcohol (dizziness and alcohol). Because alcohol has an influence on our cerebellum, which plays an important role in the (fine) coordination of movements in our body. Therefore, too much alcohol consumption leads to an increase in standing and walking insecurity. At some point, the alcohol is also in our equilibrium organ, so it comes to a Drehschwwindel.

Dizziness can also occur in the context of other underlying diseases, such as polyneuropathy, which can occur in an advanced stage of a sugar disease or alcoholism. Increased sugar levels in the blood increasingly attack the peripheral nerves, which suffers our sense of touch. In addition, our brain receives less information about the position of our joints and muscles through these nerves, which is important for targeted movements and our coordination. Overall, therefore, by a polyneuropathy also stand and gait insecurity occur, which is accompanied by a dizziness.

In addition to polyneuropathy, too low or too high blood pressure can lead to dizziness. This is typical for too low a blood pressure, for example, if one has drunk too little or gets up too quickly from sitting, so that the brain is briefly supplied with too little blood, because sitting down a lot of blood in the legs is sagging. One speaks of technical orthostatic hypotension.

Since the cerebellum is our organ for coordination and planning of movements, it is therefore logically also in diseases that affect the cerebellum, such as the cerebellar atrophy, so a tissue pain in the cerebellum, a dizziness. This manifests then mostly unsteady and not turning.

In addition to the causes already mentioned, there are also causes that are much more harmless and usually occur only for a short time. These include, for example, the vertigo in fear of heights or the dizziness that occurs after a carousel ride. Even with a seasickness or nausea during a drive (motion sickness), dizziness often occurs.

Blood pressure / circulation

Disorders in the circulation, such as high or low blood pressure, can cause dizziness.
Dizziness can be accompanied by nausea, fainting, headache and many other symptoms.

Benign paroxymal positioning vertigo

The benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is caused by a disturbance in the organ of equilibrium (vestibular organ). Particles (canalolithiasis) are deposited in the semicircular canal (see anatomy of the ear) of the organ of equilibrium. The posterior semicircular canal is most frequently affected. The freely moving particles in the semicircular canal shift in the direction of the semicircular canal during head movements and divert the cupula there. The cupula is a gelatinous structure responsible for the movement perception of the head. If it is deflected by the particles incorrectly, it will send wrong information about the head position to the brain.
Due to the contradictory information between the affected and the healthy organ of balance on the other hand it comes in head and body movements to unpleasant vertigo attacks that can last up to a minute.
In addition, the patient suffers from eye movement disorders (nystagmus) and not infrequently from nausea and vomiting.
With storage vertigo special exercises can also provide relief at home.

Diseases of the inner ear, vestibulopathy

Diseases of the inner ear include inflammation, either locally or through other organs. Middle ear inflammation (otitis media), bony inflammations (eg mastoiditis) and diseases of the meninges can spread to the inner ear and irritate the organ of balance in such a way that vertigo attacks can occur.
More information is also available on our pages:

  • Otitis
  • mastoiditis
  • Dizziness triggered by the inner ear

Meniere's disease

Ménière's disease mainly affects middle-aged men. Strikingly, in vegetatively unstable patients, it often occurs after mental stress, changes in weather, alcohol, caffeine and nicotine abuse or after banal infections. Intermittent heavy vertigo occurs, accompanied by tinnitus and a diffuse, cotton-like feeling of pressure in the ear.

After repeated seizures a hearing loss can be determined during the hearing test (audiogram, tone audiometry, hearing test). Such seizures take minutes to hours. The cause is still unclear, but suspects a disturbance in the area of ​​the fluids of the organ of equilibrium (endolymph / perilymph) and their composition (electrolyte shift).

For more information, see our topic: Meniere's Disease

Inflammation of the balance nerve / vestibular neuritis

Inflammation of the nerve which is responsible for the transfer of information from the organ of equilibrium to the brain (vestibular nerve) can trigger a permanent vertigo with falling tendency to the opposite side.
Such inflammations have been caused by viruses or occur spontaneously and without detectable cause (idiopathic).

In the so-called vestibular neuritis, the labyrinth failure, it is an acute event that can usually be compensated centrally at the latest after weeks. Due to inflammatory processes of the vestibular nerve (equilibrium nerve), the sense of balance on one side is lost. It comes to vertigo, sweats, fall and involuntary eye movements (spontaneous nystagmus). Here in the acute situation much bed rest helps. Drugs against dizziness relieve the symptoms. Good results are achieved with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone. Furthermore, a therapy with infusions with vasodilators (vasodilator drugs) is possible. Whether the infusion therapy but achieved significant success is somewhat controversial. Incidentally, these two forms of therapy are also used to treat tinnitus.

perilymph fistula

This is a connection between inner ear and middle ear with the exit of the so-called perilymph, a fluid of the inner ear. The cause of this can be infections, trauma but also malformations. Rarely is surgery done here. In most cases, a therapy of the underlying disease, such as an infection, and a wait-and-see behavior are sufficient. In general, bed rest and a head restraint will help. Children are more affected by perilymph fistulas than adults.

Basilar-type migraine

This particular form of migraine is more common in children and young adults. It gets its name from the fact that involvement of the great Arteria basilaris leads to its emergence. This migraine is characterized by symptoms such as speech disorders, blurred vision, dizziness, ataxia, hearing loss and impaired consciousness. It can come in the context of this disorder to the so-called locked-in syndrome. It is the complete immobility with full consciousness. Only a vertical eye movement may be possible. This condition lasts for about 2 to 30 minutes. Again, the therapy consists in a migraine prophylaxis.

Tension or injury to the neck muscles

The neck is a very sensitive body region. It can be overstretched quickly or loaded incorrectly and must withstand many stresses in everyday life. Finally, he wears his head, which is in motion virtually around the clock.

Damage to the cervical spine can easily lead to headaches and dizziness. Very common are simply tensions of the neck muscles, which cause these unpleasant symptoms. The neck can be slightly tense just in case of lack of sports or uncomfortable head posture, such as in office work. Relief can be achieved through simple exercises that relax the neck. These exercises can show you in the vast majority of cases the family doctor. For severe tensions, the physiotherapist can help with massages.

To protect the neck, you should avoid working overhead. Even a matching neck pillow can do very well. Heat generally relieves tension in tension, including neck complaints. Finally, a strained neck can also occur in very stressful situations, here relaxation techniques can help to eliminate the discomfort.

Disease or injury to the cervical spine

The cervical spine includes the vertebrae between the head and the thoracic vertebrae. These are seven vertebrae, of which the first two, the atlas and the axis, differ from the other vertebrae. Together with the skull bone they form the upper and lower head joints and allow the movement of the head against the spine. The cervical spine is very flexible and can easily be injured in accidents. It is secured by various bands, of which the Aliarligamente should be mentioned. These so-called wing bands secure the head joint in position and limit the movement.

Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are quite common and lead to dizziness in those affected. Especially whiplash, which happen, for example, in accidents on the road, can lead to it. In this case, the ligamentous apparatus of the head joint is injured by a so-called lash-stroke movement. This leads to instability in just this, which then causes dizziness. This instability results from rupture or overstretching of the ligaments between the skull base ( occipital bone ) and the first two vertebrae (atlas and axis). The Aliarligamente mentioned above, the wing bands, are particularly frequently affected. In addition, if the joint capsule ruptures, the movement of the head against the spine is no longer adequately limited. This results in a displacement of the head against the cervical spine or, in the worst case, a subluxation between the atlas and the axis. This is an incomplete dislocation of the joint. Under certain circumstances, this subluxation causes a so-called basilar impression. A basilar impression is a displacement of the cervical spine upwards towards the base of the skull. At the same time, the first vertebrae can exert pressure on the brain stem, triggering typical brain stem cell symptoms. Dizziness, visual disturbances and vigilance disorders (from drowsy to somnolent) usually belong to this brain stem disease.

For the examination of the cervical spine, in addition to the palpation (keys by the doctor) CT and MRI are suitable. Rarely, other diseases of the cervical spine can cause dizziness. Metastases in the cervical spine can damage them and cause dizziness.

Also, chronic diseases such as cervical disc herniation, osteoporosis and osteomalacia may be reasons for dizziness. This is rarely the case.

Deformity of the spine

Postural defects of the spine, in particular of the cervical spine, can irritate arteries to the head (Aa, Intervertebrales, Aa. Carotides) in such a way that it results in an oxygen deficiency in the area of ​​the central nervous system (CNS / brain).
As accompanying symptoms, the patients also describe headache (cephalgia), neck stiffness and pain in the area of ​​the cervical spine.

Cervical spondylosis

The cervical spine syndrome often develops as a result of degenerative changes in the cervical spine. Other causes, whiplash, tumors, muscular tension, operations of the cervical spine or herniated discs of the cervical spine.

First and foremost, a cervical spine syndrome causes pain in the neck and shoulders that can radiate into the arms and cause numbness there. However, a cervical spine syndrome can also be associated with other symptoms, such as headaches, vision problems or dizziness.

The dizziness in the cervical spine syndrome arises as a result of a conflict in the processing of information sent to the brain from different parts of the body. In the area of ​​the neck muscles sensory cells are present, which pass on information for the adjustment of the body equilibrium. Tension on the neck or degenerative changes can lead to malpositions and posture changes. The sensory cells then transmit false information to the brain regarding the spatial position and position, which conflicts with the information from the organ of balance and the organ of vision. As a result, dizziness and insecurity arise. The patients describe the dizziness as uncertainty, which occurs especially when standing and walking. The dizziness causes a feeling of wavering and a light, steady state of drowsiness. This dizziness is permanently present in many cases, sometimes a little more and sometimes less and is not dependent on certain movements or activities.

Often associated with headache, dizziness can severely restrict the patient with a cervical spine syndrome, as it may also affect attention and concentration.
Changes in the cervical vertebrae or tumorous changes in the tissue can compress or constrict the vessels that carry the blood of the systemic circulation to the brain. This reduces the blood flow to the brain and results in an undersupply of the brain with oxygen. This can also lead to dizziness and discomfort.

Patients suffering from a cervical spine syndrome due to muscular tension in the cervical spine often develop dizziness resulting from acute stress in everyday life. Dizziness attacks can also occur in such situations. To relieve dizziness, especially physical activity and physiotherapy exercises are useful. So possible tension can be solved and possibly existing misalignments can be compensated.

Space-demanding processes, tumor

A space-occupying process (tumor) in the area of ​​the auditory and balance nerves (acoustic neuroma) can lead to irritation or failure of the balance information. A diagnosis is made with a computerized tomogram (CT) of the skull.

Injuries, fractures (fractures)

In accidents involving the skull, it can lead to a fractured petrous bone (cranial bone surrounding the inner ear). Here, the equilibrium system is mechanically damaged. By explaining the accident, the symptoms and a computed tomography a reliable diagnosis can be made.

Illnesses in the field of internal medicine / neurology

Strong blood pressure fluctuations and cardiac arrhythmias can lead in the long term to an oxygen deficiency of the brain, the balance organ and balance nerves.

Hypertension drugs (antihypertensives, antihypertensives) and medicines for depression (antidepressants) as well as certain sleeping pills (benzodiazepines) have the same effect.

A severe metabolic imbalance (hypoglycaemia / hyperglycemia) as a result of an untreated diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus) can disrupt the electrolyte balance (balance of ions in the body such as sodium, potassium, calcium) in the body, causing dizziness symptoms.
In addition, in diabetes mellitus, an abnormal sensation in the extremities can lead to a disturbance of perception of the background and joint positions (polyneuropathy with proprioceptive disorders).

In multiple sclerosis (MS, encephalitis disseminata), inflammation of the balance nerves can also cause dizziness symptoms.
Migraine sufferers also report severe headaches, dizziness and lightheadedness.

Anxiety / stress as a cause of dizziness

Whether dizziness can be triggered only by stress or anxiety, one can not say for sure. Just because one does not always find an organic cause for the stress does not mean that the cause is purely psychogenic.

It is true, however, that stressful situations can cause a sense of drowsiness or dizziness. Often, symptoms such as shortness of breath or the feeling of impending fainting are added. However, these are acute events that are mainly triggered by hyperventilation.

Certain mental illnesses such as panic attacks and anxiety disorders are associated with a very high level of stress. Such panic attacks or anxiety often lead to a vicious circle of anxiety, stress, dizziness and shortness of breath. But what the exact causes are, you do not know in detail. It can help in such situations not to flee from the situation, but to get through it in peace. One should not develop an avoidance behavior out of fear. It is important to pay attention to regular and calm breathing. You should try to relax as much as possible. This reduces your stress level and prevents symptoms such as dizziness and shortness of breath.

symptoms

The "apparent" movement of the environment, which is perceived by the patient as a dizziness, leads to the fear of falling and possible consequences of injury resulting from the victims.
Anyone who has ever been on a ship on undulating swell knows the effect of the constant wavering. Nausea and vomiting as well as sweating and palpitations are typical symptoms of dizziness.

Accompanying symptoms

Dizziness can be accompanied by various symptoms. These include:

  • nausea
  • a headache
  • blurred vision

Dizziness with nausea

Nausea and dizziness often occur together. A sudden strong dizziness with nausea without other symptoms can speak for the failure of the organ of equilibrium and is a reason to visit the clinic immediately.

However, if no cause is found in the organ of balance, neurological examinations are performed. Because dizziness and nausea can also have their cause in the brain. Bacterial or viral infections, brain stem infarcts, tumors and inflammation can be the cause.

But even a phobic dizziness without physical cause is conceivable. The cause is here of a psychological nature. Such dizziness attacks often occur in the context of anxiety and panic disorders. Frequently they appear in public places, but they are quite different in their kind and their rhythm from patient to patient. For such mental causes, psychotherapy and possibly antidepressants are the treatment of choice.

However, dizziness and nausea are not always an expression of serious illness. There are situations in which they occur frequently, such as during pregnancy or menopause.

Nausea and dizziness occur more frequently in pregnancy during the first three months. Menopause can also be accompanied by these unpleasant symptoms.

Most often, however, the so-called rotary vertigo is accompanied by nausea and vomiting. These are usually dizziness with a vestibular cause. This means that the dizziness is due to damage to the vestibular apparatus (equilibrium organ) of the inner ear. The most common causes are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and travel kinetosis. The paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disturbance of the organ of equilibrium, in which the smallest crystals, the so-called semicircular canals, of the vestibular apparatus irritate, causing dizziness. This also occurs while lying down and is accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

A travel kinetosis (travel sickness) has probably already experienced everyone at least once in life. Unusual and above all curvy movements such as when driving a car, flying or traveling by boat can greatly irritate the inner ear. Since it is difficult to follow these movements with the eyes, inconsistencies arise in the brain, which then lead to a disturbed sensory perception. The result is dizziness with nausea and vomiting.

Dizziness with a headache

Headaches are a fairly nonspecific symptom. They can have many causes, ranging from everyday things like stress or a flu infection to malignant diseases like cancer.

Often, headaches are associated with a feeling of light-headedness or dizziness. A common cause of headache and dizziness are migraine attacks.

Migraine is a neurological disorder with regular headache attacks. There are also symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, photophobia (photosensitivity) and dizziness. Children with migraine are especially likely to suffer from dizziness.

Other causes of dizziness with headaches are malignant brain diseases, ie brain tumors. Dabei handelt es sich um raumfordernde Prozesse, die neurologische Störungen wie Sehstörungen, Kopfschmerzen, Schwindel oder gar einen Brechreiz auslösen können. Auch andere raumfordernde Prozesse wie intrakranielle Blutungen (bspw. eine Subarachnoidalblutung) oder eine Wassereinlagerungen im Kopf ( Hydrocephalus ) können eine solche Symptomatik hervorrufen.

Traumatische Verletzungen des Kopfes und der Halswirbelsäule führen ebenfalls zu Kopfschmerzen und Schwindel. Auch Infektionskrankheiten, wie grippale Infekte oder Magendarm-Infekte, können je nach Schwere ihres Verlaufs Kopfschmerzen und Schwindel verursachen. Dies muss aber nicht der Fall sein. Eine Hirnhautentzündung (Meningitis) oder aber schwere Mittelohrentzündung und Innenohrentzündungen können auch mögliche Ursachen sein. Schließlich gibt es natürlich noch Erkrankungen des Vestibularapparates (Gleichgewichtsorgan), die solche Symptome aufweisen. In der Regel überwiegt jedoch hier ein Schwindel ohne Kopfschmerz. Man sieht also, dass die Ursachen sehr vielfältig sein können, so natürlich auch die Therapie.

Dizziness and blurred vision

Unsere Augen und die Orientierung im Raum bzw. unser Gleichgewicht stehen in engem Zusammenhang miteinander. Aus diesem Grund können Symptome wie Schwindel und Sehstörungen auch oft zusammen auftreten.

  • Dizziness and blurred vision
  • Schindel im Alter​​​​​​​

Dizziness in pregnancy

Die Schwangerschaft ist eine ganz besondere Situation für eine Frau. Sie stellt eine Ausnahmesituation dar, die hohe Anforderungen an den weiblichen Körper stellt. Der Hormonhaushalt wird umgestellt, um so die Entwicklung des Kindes zu ermöglichen. Die Durchblutung des Körpers der Frau ändert sich, da nun auch das heranwachsende Kind versorgt werden muss. Kurzum: Alles zentriert sich nun im Körper auf die Entwicklung des ungeborenen Kindes.

Eine Schwangerschaft hat nun leider nicht nur angenehme Seiten, Schwangerschaftsbeschwerden sind recht häufig und müssen nicht zwingend mit Komplikationen verbunden sein. Gerade im ersten Schwangerschaftsdrittel kann es vermehrt zu Schwindel kommen. Auch Übelkeit ist hier recht häufig.

Ursachen für den Schwindel können ein zu niedriger Blutdruck ( Hypotonie ) oder ein Absinken des Blutzuckerspiegels sein. Auch zu schnelles Aufstehen oder eine Überhitzung der Schwangeren, können Schwindelanfälle auslösen. Je weiter die Schwangerschaft fortschreitet, desto mehr Platz nimmt die Gebärmutter im Bauchraum ein. Dabei drückt sie auf die umgebenden Blutgefäße und kann insbesondere die untere Hohlvene ( Vena cava inferior ) einklemmen. Der Blutfluss zum Herzen wird so erschwert. Dies kann ebenfalls Schwindel auslösen.

Doch was kann man nun gegen diese Schwindelanfälle in der Schwangerschaft tun? Und kann man ihnen vorbeugen? Zunächst einmal ist es wichtig, den Kreislauf zu stabilisieren. Die Schwangere sollte sich zunächst hinsetzen oder hinlegen, wenn sie sich instabil fühlt. Es kann aber ebenfalls zu Schwindel beim Hinlegen kommen. So beugt sie aber auch einem Sturz vor, bei dem das Kind zu Schaden kommen könnte. Im Allgemeinen ist es wichtig, auf eine ausgewogene und regelmäßige Ernährung zu achten. Schwangere Frauen sollten alle paar Stunden eine Kleinigkeit essen, um ihren Blutzuckerspiegel konstant zu halten. Dies hilft, Schwindelattacken vorzubeugen. Außerdem sollten sie darauf achten, nicht zu schnell aus dem Bett oder von einem Stuhl aufzustehen. Eine ausreichende Flüssigkeitszufuhr ist darüber hinaus auch sehr wichtig. Empfohlen werden etwa 2 bis 3 Liter Wasser, Tee oder Saftschorlen. Wechselbäder und ausreichende Bewegung helfen zusätzlich den Kreislauf stabil zu halten. Es gilt jedoch Vorsicht bei der Bewegung vor allem in der fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaft. Die Bewegung oder der Sport sollten sehr schonend und nicht anstrengend sein. Es geht hier nur darum, den Kreislauf etwas in Schwung zu bringen. Ausreichende Ruhepausen sind absolute Pflicht!

In der Regel ist ein Schwindelgefühl in der Schwangerschaft, vor allem zu Beginn dieser, etwas Normales. Meist legt sich der Schwindel auch nach dem ersten Trimenon, sodass die restliche Schwangerschaft angenehmer verläuft. Bei anhaltendem Schwindel und einer starken Benommenheit sollte jedoch stets ein Arzt informiert werden. Gerade, wenn weitere Symptome wie Sehstörungen oder Kopfschmerzen hinzukommen, ist es sehr ratsam einen Arzt zu kontaktieren.

Dizziness while lying down

Schwindel, der im Liegen auftritt, kann viele verschiedene Ursachen haben. Neben organischen Störungen, wie zum Beispiel einer Entgleisung des Blutdruckes oder ein zu niedriger Blutzuckerspiegel, können auch psychische Belastung oder viel Stress als Auslöser in Frage kommen.

Eine der häufigsten Ursachen für Schwindel beim Liegen ist der gutartige Lagerungsschwindel. Hierbei handelt es sich um einen gutartigen, anfallsartig auftretenden Drehschwindel, der durch eine Störung im Gleichgewichtsorgan ausgelöst wird. Es bilden sich kleine Ohrsteinchen, die bei einer Bewegung des Kopfes die Sinneszellen im Innenohr reizen und damit den Schwindel auslösen.
Die plötzlich auftretenden Drehschwindelattacken gehen häufig mit Übelkeit und Erbrechen einher. Die Drehschwindelattacken treten bei Lageveränderungen, vor allem beim Drehen im Schlaf oder beim Aufstehen aus einer liegenden Position, sowie bei Kopfbewegungen jeglicher Art auf (siehe: Schwindel am Morgen). In der Regel verschwindet der Schwindel nach ein paar Wochen wieder.
Allerdings führt eine effektive Behandlung zu einer schnelleren Beschwerdefreiheit. Durch ein gezieltes, vom Arzt durchgeführtes, Lagerungstraining können die kleinen Ohrsteinchen, die die Ursache des Schwindels beim Liegen bilden, gelöst werden.

Schwindel im Liegen kann ebenfalls durch einen zu hohen Alkoholkonsum auftreten. Durch Alkohol werden Drehschwindelattacken ausgelöst, die sich beim Liegen, vor allem mit geschlossenen Augen, verschlimmern. Während eines Alkoholrausches kommt es vorübergehend zu einer Hemmung einiger Sinneszellen im Kleinhirn, wodurch eine korrekte Abstimmung zwischen der Körperlage und den Wahrnehmungen der Augen erschwert wird.

Bestehen im Nacken– oder Halsbereich Verspannungen, kann dies ebenfalls zu Schwindel im Liegen führen. Durch Verspannungen werden falsche Signale von den Muskeln an das Gehirn geleitet, die dieses nicht richtig verarbeiten kann. Als Folge entsteht ein Schwindelgefühl. Therapeutisch kann man in diesem Fall mit physiotherapeutischen Übungen und Medikamenten zur Lockerung der Muskelpartien vorgehen.

Außerdem kann Schwindel beim Liegen in vielen Fällen durch Fehlregulationen des Körperkreislaufs entstehen. Sowohl ein zu niedriger, als auch ein zu hoher Blutdruck können nachts zu Schwindel führen. Bei Schwangeren kann es im Liegen durch den erhöhten Druck in der Bauchhöhle zu einem Abdrücken der unteren Hohlvene kommen. Dadurch gelangt nicht genügend Blut zum Herzen zurück, was zu einsetzendem Schwindel, Atemnot und Herzrasen, bis hin zur Ohnmacht führen kann. Um dies zu vermeiden sollten Frauen mit einer fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaft langes Liegen in Rückenlage weitestgehend vermeiden. Ihnen wird geraten, beim Liegen eine Position auf der linken Körperseite einzunehmen.

Schwindel bei Kindern

Schwindel ist auch bei Kindern keine Seltenheit. Man schätzt, dass circa 15% der Schulkinder in Deutschland bereits eine Schwindelepisode durchgemacht haben. In der Regel haben die Ursachen des Schwindels bei Kindern einen eher gutartigen Verlauf. Sehr häufig sind Migräne-assoziierte Schwindelanfälle bei Kindern. Sie machen etwa 50% der Erkrankungen der Kinder aus. Die Häufigkeit ist also recht anders als bei Erwachsenen. Im Folgenden ist eine kleine Übersicht über die häufigen Ursachen von Schwindelattacken bei Kindern.

Benigner paroxysmaler Schwindel bei Kindern

Beim benignen paroxymalen Schwindel verursachen kleine Kristalle im Gleichgewichtsorgan eine inadäquate Reizung, die den Schwindel hervorruft. Es kommt zu kurzen Schwindelattacken von etwa 30 Sekunden bei Bewegungen des Kopfes. Auch wenn die Krankheit sich spontan nach Wochen oder Monaten zurückbilden kann, sollte mit einer Therapie begonnen werden. Lagerungsübungen und Entspannungstechniken können helfen. Darüber hinaus kann bei sehr schwerem Verlauf eine Migräneprophylaxe durchgeführt werden.

Illustration ear

  1. Outer ear
  2. eardrum
  3. Vestibular system
  4. Auditory nerve (Nervus acusticus)
  5. tube
  6. Mastoid (mastoid)

Dizziness and Balance Testing - Mayo Clinic (December 2019).


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