Synonyms in the broader sense

Supplements, dietary supplements, sports nutrition, performance enhancers, doping

English: Supplements

What are supplements?

Supplements, along with a healthy diet and physical exercises, can help you achieve your athletic goals faster.

Supplements are dietary supplements designed to give athletes who have greater consumption of these so-called supplements optimal sports performance.
Performance-oriented sport is currently trying to optimize its performance with all available legal means in order to be optimally prepared on the day of the competition. Among other aspects, the specific intake of permitted dietary supplements is often attributed great (to?) Effects.

Positive doping cases due to (allegedly) contaminated supplements have led to uncertainty regarding the purity of the supplements in recent years. Studies have confirmed that the danger of contaminated supplements exists!
Furthermore, the most important supplements are to be presented clearly structured with sense, function and dosage.
Nevertheless, dietary supplements are an integral part of performance-oriented sports.

Here you will find more information about muscle building and nutrition


Supplements or dietary supplements are compounds that are added to the body from the outside in addition to basic nutrition.
Supplements should not be taken for long periods of time without consulting a specialist. Basically, the principles of a healthy basic nutrition are also to be considered by sport - driving. Taking supplements can not compensate for a wrong or unbalanced diet.
In no way will instructions or recommendations be given on how to take supplements or advertise specific products.
Supplementation with permitted dietary supplements should only be carried out in a targeted manner and individually coordinated by a specialist, based on optimal basic nutrition.

The principles of supplementation should be observed. These are briefly summarized:

  1. Supplements / sports nutrition correspond to only one tessera in the overall mosaic of physical performance.
  2. There are no substances used on the doping list.
  3. The long-term health of the athlete and the athlete are at the heart of taking supplements.
  4. Supplementation should be individually tailored. Possible side effects and ethical issues should be considered when consuming supplements. The exact application and dosage of the supplements will be discussed with the supervising environment and recorded in writing.
  5. In order to keep the contamination risk with doping substances as small as possible, orders from the internet and from unknown producers should be waived.

muscle building

Supplements can help athletes achieve their goals, especially in muscle building. However, effectiveness is not always ensured.

To get even stronger and look even more muscular, strength athletes and bodybuilders go to their physical limits and usually combine their training with various dietary supplements or supplements.
Starting with basic nutrients like

  • fats
  • carbohydrates
  • proteins
  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • creatine
  • BCAA
  • L-carnitine
  • pyruvate
  • Weight gainer
  • ribose
  • protein powder

The selection is endless and many funds promise big successes. However, many effects of these supplements are not scientifically proven, so there is much ignorance about the effects, side effects and dosages.
Important supplements whose effects are beyond doubt are protein concentrates, vitamins and minerals, amino acids, creatine and carbohydrates. These substances, such as proteins, stimulate muscle building after a workout or, like the amino acids, have a positive effect on the energy metabolism. Creatine causes an increase in the volume of muscle cells and thus of the entire muscle. Every single supplement has its own effect and dosage, which should always be observed.

Furthermore, the supplements can be subdivided into other subgroups. There's the group of basic supplements like:

  • vitamin tablets
  • magnesium
  • zinc
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

Among the supplements for losing weight are:

  • caffeine
  • Green tea
  • creatine
  • protein powder

In addition, there are the supplements to build muscle such as:

  • Whey protein powder
  • creatine
  • monohydrate
  • Trace elements that support muscle growth.

The latest group refers to supplements for vegetarians and vegans:

  • protein powder
  • creatine
  • L-carnitine
  • Beta-alanine

For the weight training novice protein shakes are best after a workout to support muscle growth and regeneration. When taking a shake after each training session, you can usually go wrong and so do not cause overdoses.
Advanced athletes also use weight gainers to promote mass growth and increase muscle mass. Creatine can generate more strength and mass gain and should only be taken with sufficient fluid. Strength athletes who also want to get the last percent out of their bodies supplement BCAAs or beta-alanine.

Other supplements for muscle building:

Caffeine promotes fat burning and thus provides more energy. In addition, blood pressure and pulse rate are increased, the body becomes more efficient and exhausted slower.

With glutamine you can make sure that the protein is not used to generate energy in a workout until muscle fatigue, but is directly transferred into muscle growth. Dosage recommendations range from five to ten grams before and after each session.

Overview of the various supplements


This nutrient is found in many foods and is essential for bodybuilding and weight training. Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy in the human body, without which it is impossible to immediately provide energy.
In addition to the muscles, especially the brain and the human nervous system rely on carbohydrates.
It can be divided into complex carbohydrates ( rice, pasta, potatoes, ... ) and simple carbohydrates ( sugar, sweets, ... ). Only a balanced diet with enough carbohydrates, protein and fat ensures optimal muscle growth. Supplements can also be helpful here. One should especially be careful to avoid finished products and sweets.

If you want to add more carbohydrates to the normal diet, you can buy carbohydrates in shops in isolation and add to the protein shake. Long-chain maltodextrin or Vitargo are well-known supplements that you can buy in addition. When taking carbohydrates, it is recommended that you mix 35g of carbohydrates in the protein shake on training days, and add 50g to the shake after training. On non-workout days, however, three grams in the morning rich.


Also called D-ribose, it is a monosaccharide ( polysaccharide ) found in all plant and animal cells. The body needs ribose in the formation of ATP, which in turn is needed for the entire metabolism, but especially for the energy supply.
The molecule disintegrates and is converted back to ATP by ribose. For strength and endurance athletes, a large part of the required energy is used by the muscles. Supplements such as ribose can shorten the ATP production and thus the regeneration phases. Normally, the body can produce ribose itself and, in addition, small amounts can be supplied by ingesting nuts, berries or spinach. Ribose also occurs in vegetable oils and is produced ever lower in the human body, especially in old age.
Supplementing can then make sense outside the sport as well. As a dietary supplement you can buy ribose in the form of a powder and dissolve it in water and drink it. The maximum dosage should be between three and five grams and should not be exceeded.


Pyruvate is also known as pyruvic acid and is produced as a metabolite at the end of the sugar metabolism. Taking pyruvate as a supplement can lead to weight loss.
Scientific studies have shown that the reduction of body fat is boosted, the yo-yo effect is avoided and the endurance performance is improved. With a seven-day intake of pyruvate in the 90s of STANKO (1990) could be demonstrated an increase in endurance capacity. However, there is no scientifically proven evidence for the increased fat loss due to a higher heat output. Pyruvate occurs in nature in small quantities in plant foods. For example, 450 grams of pyruvate are found in 100 grams of a red apple.

When dosing, it is recommended to take pyruvate supplements over six weeks combined with a diet. The maximum dosage per day is about 6 grams. Of these, one should take 3 grams before training to boost the effect of increased fat burning.

So who wants to increase fat loss and endurance, can buy pyruvate as a supplement in the form of drinking ampoules. As side effects, aggravated at high dosages, stomach cramps and diarrhea may occur.


Proteins are an important nutritional supplement for weight training.

This nutrient group is particularly important in bodybuilding and strength training, as proteins play an important role, especially in the muscle building phase. Protein is composed of many different substances (BCAA, L-glutamine, L-arginine, ...) in a chain form. The longer these chains make up the protein, the harder it is to digest the protein.

The benefits of taking supplements with protein in weight training are the benefits of muscle building, the preservation of existing tissue and the third energy carrier after fat and carbohydrates.
Especially in competitive sports, therefore, taking additional protein with supplements makes sense. When recording, it should be noted that some foods contain more protein than others. For strength athletes who want to build their muscle mass, it is important to eat about two grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Immediately after training, a protein shake serves to support the growth stimulus of the muscles.


The effect of protein shakes is often due to the fact that protein products are contaminated with steroids

amino acids

Amino acids are an energy source in addition to fats and carbohydrates, but have nitrogen compared to the other two substances.
In addition, amino acids are the only one able to form the skin, hair, organs and tissues. Thus one can regard the amino acids also as basic building blocks of the entire human body.
Furthermore, amino acids are also involved in the metabolism and regulate the processes in the human body. Without these supplements, a person can not live or survive healthy.
For athletes, amino acids are so important because they are involved in building and renewal processes in the body, and increasingly occur in muscle tissue, bones and skin. Some amino acids, for example, promote blood circulation and are therefore not uninteresting for athletes. Particularly in the field of weight training, it was quickly known that a lack of amino acids leads to a loss of performance, and it was therefore decided to supplement this substance. However, if you provide your body with enough amino acids, then muscle growth can even benefit. The best known and most important amino acid for strength athletes is the so-called BCAA.


BCAA is a branched-chain amino acid and is one of the essential amino acids that you have to absorb through your diet because the body can not synthesize it yourself. BCAA describes a group rather than a specific amino acid and includes leucine, valine and isoleucine.
Especially in bodybuilding, these amino acids everyone knows and they provide an increase in muscle growth, additionally support many more, even vital functions in the body. The energy supply of the musculature is also supported by the supplemented BCAA and even in diseases and metabolic problems, they can help.
Leucine is particularly important in building and maintaining muscle tissue. Weight loss supplements like BCAA can be effective as well. Studies have found that high consumption of BCAA is associated with low levels of overweight. BCAA can be found especially in very protein-rich foods and in a normal balanced and healthy diet should be enough to take enough BCAA. The correct dosage and intake of BCAA depends on many factors such as the level of activity, the body weight or the size


Glutamine is an amino acid known especially among strength athletes, which is the most common of all amino acids in the muscle and thus is also the most effective. This dietary supplement is interesting by several modes of action for the field of bodybuilding and weight training. On the one hand, the cell volume of the muscle cells is increased, the regeneration capacity of the muscle improves, the absorption rate of proteins is increased and the unwanted degradation of muscle mass is reduced.

Bodybuilders and strength athletes should divide the intake of glutamine at three different times. First, it should be done before a workout to prevent muscle loss. Taking supplements like glutamine after a workout helps to boost muscle growth and increase cell volume. The last time to take a drink is before going to bed. This important point in time ensures that muscle loss is minimized overnight and regeneration is improved. Feeding in the morning after getting up may serve to bridge and close any nutrient supply gaps that may have occurred during the night. When dosing glutamine should not exceed the daily maximum of 25 grams per day.


Behind the letters HMB hides an organic acid with an essential amino acid leucine, which is also called "beta hydroxy beta methyl butyrate". The body can make up to 0.3 grams of this supplement per day. Due to the additional supply as a dietary supplement, one hopes in force sports an increase in strength with an increase in muscle mass. In addition, HMB ensures that the body fat percentage is reduced and the immune system can benefit from it and become more robust.
The side effects are currently lacking in more in-depth studies with scientifically proven results for supplements such as this, but the acne formation should be supported. Long-term side effects are poorly researched so far, so you should always contact a doctor before taking HMB.

When dosing you should be careful to feed between 3 and 6 grams per day. Higher dosages are considered unsafe, so the general recommendation is: 3 grams per 3 grams divided into 1 gram is an optimal start.


L-carnitine is a vitamin-like and essential nutrient for the human body. It is a protein compound and is composed of two amino acids.
Approximately 90% of the body's L-carnitine is found in the muscle and heart where it contributes to energy. Other positive effects include a positive effect on fatigue, strengthening the immune system, increasing strength and increasing endurance.
In addition to dietary intake, L-carnitine can also be supplemented. When dosing one differentiates between two administration times. First, with general exhaustion with a dosage of 300 mg and 500 mg. And during a diet where between 750 mg and 2000 mg per day are fed.
An overdose can not be expected with L-carnitine, since superfluous L-carnitine can be eliminated without problems. Since top athletes usually do without a lot of meat in their diet to ingest many carbohydrates, the additional intake of L-carnitine is a good option.


Behind the name CLA ( conjugated linoleum acid ) hides the conjugated linoleic acid, which belongs to the unsaturated fatty acids.
Strength athletes, in particular, resort to this remedy, because it fits wonderfully into a high-protein diet as a supplement. In general, CLA ensures that blood cholesterol is kept stable at a stable level.
This can be influenced by different dietary habits and the use of other supplements such as BCAA, protein, etc. In conjunction with proteins CLA unfolds its best mode of action, making sure that you feed throughout the day protein. CLA naturally occurs in meat and dairy products. However, it also takes a large part of the rather unwanted saturated fatty acids to yourself and this is what you usually want to avoid. Therefore, the supplementation of CLA offers to promote muscle growth and fat loss.
The most widely sold CLA product in the world is the Tonalin ® CLA and is derived from thistle oil.
All the benefits of CLA to a point: Reduction of fat storage, increased fat dissociation in the cells, increased metabolism and reduction of fat cells in the body.


The International Sports Nutrition Society ( ISSN ) confirmed that creatine is the most effective supplement available on the open market. Particularly in the field of weight training and endurance sports, good effects are to be expected, provided that the intake and use is appropriate and properly dosed. The effect is felt especially in the energy supply, where creatine plays an important role in muscle contraction. In addition, creatine causes an increase in the volume of muscle cells, so that the entire muscle increases. It should be noted that you take enough liquid. An additional five liters of water should be scheduled each day.

In natural food, creatine is found mostly in meat and fish. The body needs about two grams of creatine per day, of which he can produce about one gram of his own. The other half must be fed through the diet or supplements. With increased creatine requirements through strength or endurance training, supplementation therefore makes a lot of sense.
When you dose creatine: more is not necessarily better. Therefore, you should start with small amounts and wait for the effect before you overdosed. The intake can be made in combination with carbohydrates, as they optimize their uptake into the bloodstream and thus into the muscle fibers.

  • creatine
  • How useful is creatine?
  • Creatine powder
  • The effect of creatine

Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris is the Latin name for the earth tribe or Erdsternchen. This thorn plant contains, among other things, saponins (a steroid-like substance ), which are known in the bodybuilding scene as anabolic steroids.
In the form of powders and capsules, Tribulus terrestris can be applied, thus stimulating muscle growth through increased water retention in the tissue and increasing endurance. When taking Tribulus capsules should be paid to a balanced diet and exercise. The capsules may contain between 1200 mg and 2000 mg of the root extract. The recommended daily dose, however, is 1200 mg.
Although the supplement has a reputation for causing no side effects, athletes complained of gastrointestinal problems after a prolonged period of ingestion. However, these side effects may indicate an overdose and a reduction in the daily intake of these supplements should reduce the side effects. Further side effects on humans are unknown and could previously only be detected on animals.

Weight gainer

Weight gainers are supplements that are widely used in the weight training and bodybuilding scene and are designed to help athletes gain weight. Above all, people who are very slim due to their good metabolism but do not build up much mass can benefit from weight gainers.
To gain weight, weight gainers contain a large amount of carbohydrates mixed with proteins, fats, vitamins and trace elements. Due to the high energy content of the Weight Gainer, occasionally there may be an increase in fat mass, which is wrongly interpreted as muscle gain. People who have a slower metabolism should therefore refrain from gaining weight because of the risk of building up fat mass. In addition to the effect of building muscle, weight gainers will also have a positive influence on the duration of the intensive training phases.

The weight gainer should be taken immediately after a workout, so that the emptied energy stores can be refilled and faster muscle mass can be built up. In some cases, even two to three Shakes Weight Gainers can be consumed throughout the day to gain weight. Athletes who value low body fat should, however, get along better without these supplements.

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