What are the symptoms of a torn ligament

Almost any sports injury, if it is a closed musculoskeletal injury, is accompanied by symptoms of bleeding into the affected tissue.
The result is a bruise ( hematoma ). When sports is often directly on the square no more detailed examination possible. Therefore, it is difficult to make a further distinction of the injury. Is it a simple bruise, or is it a herniation, torn muscle fiber, or ligamentous extension.

Many sports injuries, although different in the severity of the symptoms, have a similar complaint:

  • immediate onset, often severe pain
  • Powerlessness of the affected muscles, restricted movement and even immobility
  • Swelling and pressure sensitivity

Torn ligament on the foot

The typical symptoms of torn ligament are marked swelling and severe pain.

As a rule, in the case of the torn ligament symptom, a distinct swelling in the area of ​​the lateral malleolus, which is caused by water retention and bruising ( hematoma ), is recognized. There is a strong pressure and movement pain over the injured ligaments. The occurrence and stress of the foot usually causes severe pain.

If the pain is not too great, the ankle can be " unfolded ", ie the articular surfaces can be removed by the loss of the outer ligament function, if one turns the foot inwards or pushes the lower leg in the direction of the heel while the ankle is fixed.

If one sees external symptoms such as a bruise with corresponding discoloration of the skin, this is a first indication of ligament rupture. The bruise is a typical symptom that blood-flow structures such as the capsule and ligaments have been damaged in its structure, but it can also be an indication of an external malleolar fracture.

Symptoms of torn ligament in different joints

Symptoms of ligament tear of the knee joint

The symptoms of a ligament tear on the knee are quite different, depending on which of the ligaments is torn.
In the knee, there are the so-called cruciate ligaments, which run within the knee joint. If a ligament tear occurs in the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament, the patient complains of various symptoms.
For one, many patients hear when their cruciate ligament tears because it comes to a crackling noise. In addition, the patients feel the torn ligament in the knee.
Other symptoms of a cruciate ligament tear in the knee include, for example, swelling immediately after the tear, which are getting stronger. In addition, there are knee pain and hemorrhages, so-called hematomas, which are usually more noticeable after several minutes.
In addition, symptoms such as instability of the knee and kinking of the knee occur when trying to run.

In addition to the crossbands, there are also outer bands in the knee. If there is a so-called outer ligament rupture, similar symptoms develop, which, however, can usually be better localized than with a cruciate ligament rupture. If there is a ligament tear in the outer ligament of the knee so the patient usually complains of pain and slight swelling in the outer area of ​​the knee.
Hematomas are rather rare here and also the buckling of the knee is unlikely. The symptoms of an isolated internal ligament tear in the knee are similar to those of an outer ligament tear, except that the patient localizes pain and swelling to the area of ​​the inner knee.

Symptoms of ligament tear of the shoulder

The shoulder has a very flexible shoulder joint, which is surrounded by several ligaments to contribute to the stability of the shoulder.
However, if a torn ligament occurs in the shoulder, the patient does not always have direct symptoms because the shoulder is stabilized primarily by muscles and their tendons ( in the medical profession this is called the rotator cuff ).
However, if there is a ligament tear of the so-called acromial-clavicle joint ( short: AC joint ), the patient sometimes shows very clear symptoms, depending on whether it comes to a complete or incomplete ligament tear.
Between the acromion and clavicle ( clavicle ) there is a band, also found between the coracoid and the collarbone another band.
If there is a torn ligament between Acromion and Clavicle, the patient has only a few symptoms, usually only mild pain or swelling.
If, however, there is complete ligament rupture in the shoulder, the patient has clear symptoms such as shoulder pain, swelling, bruising ( hematoma ) and above all a visible protrusion of the collarbone upward as a muscle, called the sternocleidomastoid muscle, pulls the clavicle upwards and the Ligaments are no longer able to counteract this and keep the collarbone in its original position.
However, this extreme case is rare, and partial shoulder tearing in the shoulder is mild in many patients.

Symptoms of ligament tear of the hand

The hand consists of many bones, all of which are connected to each other with ribbons.
If there is a torn ligament in the wrist, the patient has different symptoms.
Particularly often it comes to a torn ligament between lunar ( Os lunatum ) and scaphoid ( Scaphoid ), also scapholunäres band. This torn ligament in the wrist is hardly noticed by many patients at first. Symptoms such as mild pain or swelling are also attributed to a compression but not taken seriously.
Nevertheless, it may be that the tear leads to a permanent weakness in the area of ​​the wrist, which is always associated with painful periods. It comes to immobility and stress problems, which then lead to the patient due to the ligament tear in the wrist and the accompanying symptoms, everyday activities such as a honey jar open, only more difficult and sometimes can not cope more.
Also between the other eight bones in the wrist it can lead to torn ligaments, which lead usually only slight symptoms with itself. Nevertheless, these should be taken seriously because they often lead to incorrect stress and / or misalignments, which are then accompanied in the worst case with premature joint wear (arthritis in the wrist) and the resulting immobility of the wrist.

Torn ligaments in the wrist usually have only slight symptoms such as slight pain on the hand, swelling and a difficult load capacity, but the torn ligaments untreated fatal consequences and should therefore always be examined and treated by an accident surgeon, in the best case by a hand surgeon,

Illustration of a ligament tear

Figure torn ligament right foot from the back (A) and outside (B)
  1. Front fibula -
    Anklebone Band -
    Lig. Fibulotalar anterius
  2. Fibula-calcaneal
    Tape -
    Ligament calcaneofibulare
  3. Rear fibula
    Anklebone Band -
    Lig. Fibulotalar posterior
  4. Heel bone - calcaneus
  5. Anklebone - Talus
  6. Outer ankle -
    (= Fibula ankle)
    Malleolus lateralis
  7. Fibula - fibula
  8. Shin - Tibia
  9. Dice leg -
    Os cuboid
  10. Scaphoid (of the foot) -
    Os navicular
  11. Inner Knuckle -
    (= Shinbone) -
    Malleolus medialis
    I - I - Upper ankle
    (Joint line blue) -
    Articulatio talocruralis
    II - II - Lower ankle
    (Joint line purple) -
    Articulatiotalocalcaneonavicularis

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