Diabetes is a very common disease that is affecting more and more people. She can train at any age. There are two different forms of so-called diabetes mellitus. Both are a metabolic disorder that leads to a constantly elevated blood sugar level. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form. The body develops a resistance to the hormone insulin, which normally ensures that the sugar that was taken in with the food is transported from the blood into the various cells and can be used here to generate energy.
If this signal is missing, the sugar in the blood remains and the blood sugar level is permanently increased. Often, older people are affected, risk factors are overweight and lack of exercise. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys pancreatic cells that produce insulin. This leads to the same effects as type 2 diabetes, although type 1 is often affected by adolescents.
Type 2 diabetes often develops slowly and is therefore often noticed very late. The symptoms are usually not as severe and the diagnosis is often just a chance diagnosis. The first signs that a person seeks medical attention are frequent urination and severe thirst. The body tries to flush the superfluous sugar out of the body through frequent urination. This often results in dry and itchy skin as it can lead to a lack of fluid in the body due to urination (dehydration). In addition, there is often an unexplained weight loss and persistent fatigue and fatigue. Those affected find that they are very susceptible to infections and that wounds heal worse. This can be explained by the weakening of the immune system. All of these symptoms occur in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, however, the symptoms are much more pronounced and occur quite suddenly. Type 2 diabetes may be delayed due to the creeping nature of the relatively nonspecific symptoms.
Ultimately, only the doctor can tell if there is diabetes or not. He does this by lowering the blood sugar level and after the ingestion of glucose (dextrose).
In babies, toddlers and even children, it is usually type 1 diabetes that occurs. This autoimmune disease, which may be congenital or develops over the course of life, destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. However, specific symptoms only appear when more than 80% of the cells have already been destroyed. Striking in this type of diabetes is that the symptoms are very sudden in children. They can train within a few weeks and be very strong. The first signs include frequent urination and very strong thirst. Often the children often have to go to the bathroom at night or wet their bed. Add to that fatigue and fatigue and heavy weight loss of the child. The child usually has dry skin and often suffers from infections. It can also cause severe abdominal pain. Children's breath often smells of acetone . The parents notice this because the children from the mouth smell of nail polish remover.
Also in infants, type 1 diabetes can occur and manifests itself in the fact that the babies drink excessively and the diaper is constantly wet.
All of these symptoms are less pronounced in type 2 diabetes, develop slowly and often go unnoticed. Type 2 diabetes is much less common in children than type 1 diabetes because it is often due to poor diet and exercise.
The normal mandatory check-ups for infants and children do not test for diabetes. Only when there is a suspicion of diabetes in an infant or child does the pediatrician usually perform a urine and blood test to determine the amount of sugar. Certain antibodies can also be determined to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is also called gestational diabetes . As a rule, this is not dangerous and the expectant mothers often do not even notice that there is gestational diabetes due to the fact that they have no complaints. There are no typical symptoms of diabetes such as increased thirst or frequent urination.
Nevertheless, it is very important that the pregnant woman is examined for gestational diabetes. If it does exist, it is very important to treat it as it can cause serious consequences for both child and mother. In untreated gestational diabetes, the amount of amniotic fluid can proliferate and the child can grow very quickly. At the same time, there are also delays in the development of the child's organs.
For this reason, a screening for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy is taken over by the health insurance companies. This is often the only way to detect gestational diabetes.
Only very rarely is the suspicion of gestational diabetes due to symptoms occurring. That's because they are very unspecific. Frequent urinary tract infections or vaginal yeast can be a first sign.