introduction

Sport is very important for the therapy of high blood pressure.

Basically, one can say that sport in the form of endurance training leads to a reduction in high blood pressure in the long term. To be able to better describe the effects of exercise on the heart and thus also on blood pressure, here is an example.

With endurance training, which lasts about 30 minutes and is carried out three times a week, high blood pressure can be reduced by 10-20 mmHg. In addition, the pulse drops by 20% and the heart expectorates. In addition, the blood pressure at rest drops by approx. 10mmHg.

However, for the training to have an effect, you must train for at least 20-30 minutes. The training can be divided into 10 minute phases.

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It is important to ensure that the intensity is increased slowly at the beginning. It is also important to keep an eye on your pulse. This must not be too high, otherwise the heart will be stressed too much. It is best to write a suitable training plan with the help of your doctor. The doctor can go through ergometric Investigations determine exactly the level of performance. These ergometric examinations can be carried out using a treadmill or a bicycle ergometer. In addition, the doctor can assess previous damage, cardiac arrhythmias or coronary artery disease (CHD) in the heart with the help of stress and resting ECGs.

Dangers in sports

The question of whether exercise is useful or dangerous for high blood pressure first and foremost determines the extent of the high blood pressure. In principle, exercise is recommended for people with mild or moderate high blood pressure high blood pressure however Notif this is still too high under medication.

Blood pressure values ​​of <160 mmHg systolic and <100 mmHg diastolic would be described as mild and moderate high blood pressure. High blood pressure would mean values ​​over 160 mmHg systolic and over 100 mmHg diastolic. If the blood pressure is too high, however, the high blood pressure can be adjusted with medication so that sport can now also be carried out. In this way, patients with very high blood pressure can also be active in sports.

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However, physical activity can be increased a little in all degrees of severity, for example by walking or hiking.

People with mild or moderate high blood pressure should prefer endurance training. These include jogging, walking, cycling, rowing, cross-country skiing, swimming or hiking. On the other hand, sports with great effort, such as lifting weights, expander training, martial arts, wrestling, boxing, diving, climbing or bodybuilding are unfavorable. Sport is also unsuitable where the body is subjected to sudden loads. These include sports such as tennis or weight training.

Obesity

Sport in the form of endurance training also has a positive effect on blood pressure in the long run, even if you are overweight, because it also drops here as a result of training. The cholesterol values ​​for obesity and sport are also positive. One must note that it two forms of cholesterol there. For one thing HDL cholesterol, this is responsible for transporting the cholesterol out of the body and thus ensures a lower risk of developing arteriosclerosis in our blood vessels ("vascular calcification"). Atherosclerosis describes a deposit in the vessel walls. The "good" HDL cholesterol is increased by physical activity and is therefore useful for people who are overweight. There is also that LDL cholesterol, which transports the cholesterol into the body and thus promotes arteriosclerosis. Exercise leads to a reduction in LDL cholesterol.

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Other positive effects of sport for overweight are in one Decrease in heart rate and in the Increase in stroke volume of the heart. This increases the long-term Cardiac output. In addition, a better insulin effect and less high fat values ​​in the form of triglycerides are observed. In addition, one anaerobic metabolism, in which Lactate as acid arises, permanently on one aerobic metabolism rearranged.

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Beta blockers

In the case of beta blockers, it must first of all be ensured that the patient does not suffer any loss of performance from the beta blocker. It can happen that the beta blocker causes the Pulse and above all the systolic blood pressure are set so low that the heart thereby not enough power can provide. It is particularly important that the maximum heart rate is reduced, which is required as additional cardiac output during physical exertion. The consequence of this is that the person concerned cannot perform as well. Circulatory problems are also possible. Therefore, the patient should have his / her well-being under stress monitored by a doctor with appropriate training. If the beta blocker or heart rate reducing medication is not properly adjusted, one should be feared Bradycardia. Bradycardia is a heart rate below 50 heartbeats per minute. The bradycardia can cause a Reduced blood flow come from organs. Reduced blood flow to the brain may lead to unconsciousness. In addition, beta blockers disrupt the utilization of sugar and fat.

As an alternative to beta blockers, you can consider using other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers. These drugs do not have as great an effect on the performance of the heart as the beta blockers and also show less influence on sugar and fat utilization.

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Pulse

Basically, exercise has a positive effect on the pulse, as it is lowered in the long term and this is beneficial for the heart. In order to protect the heart while exercising and not to strain it too much, make sure that the training pulse does not rise too high.

Roughly, you can say that the pulse should never be over 180 when exercising.

As a rule of thumb, you can calculate the training heart rate as follows:

180 - age = optimal training heart rate. Should you also use pulse-slowing drugs, such as a beta blocker, the training heart rate has to be calculated differently. In the case of treatment with a beta-blocker, a pulse should be aimed for that is 10-20% lower.

In addition, the pulse should also be around 10-15 beats lower than the calculated training pulse for other sports during swimming training.

Also read the article on the topic: High heart rate at rest

Cause and successes

The successes due to endurance sports, regarding high blood pressure, are after 10-12 Weeks to expect. The more pronounced the high blood pressure, the better the success. In addition, the effect is greatest at the beginning. Seen over the years, the blood pressure is still falling slightly. The effect of lowering blood pressure during exercise is enhanced by a lower release of stress hormones reached. These hormones are also called catecholamines. Count among them adrenaline and Norepinephrine. These hormones are regulated by our autonomic nervous system, in this case the sympathetic nervous system. The lowering of these stress hormones now ensures that the vessels expand. The Intra-vessel wind (endothelium) namely have Receptors. So if fewer stress hormones dock on these receptors, vascular dilation occurs. This vasodilation is caused by an increase Nitric oxide reaches and ensures the actual lowering of blood pressure.

a headache

The headaches associated with high blood pressure come in particular in the Morning hours in front. They are mostly located on Back of the head. The headache can cause sleep disorders. The cause of the pain in high blood pressure is increased pressure in the vesselswho also become a Pressure increase in the area and thus on the nerve-supplying part of the head, the MeningesMeninges presses. Headache can be the beginning or accompanying symptom of a hypertensive crisis. A hypertensive crisis is a massively high blood pressure, the symptomatic becomes. The patients often describe this very severe headache and usually have other symptoms as well.

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It has now been found that mild, moderate high blood pressure does not cause headaches. However, research is still being carried out to determine whether this might not increase the likelihood of headaches occurring.

More symptoms

Symptoms of high blood pressure can vary widely. However, you should also watch your body carefully while exercising, so that exercise does not have counterproductive effects and so that blood pressure peaks are not overlooked. Poorly controlled blood pressure can develop very inconspicuous express and initially go unnoticed. It is therefore important to recognize possible symptoms in good time, because it can too Long-term damage come from high blood pressure. Permanently high blood pressure can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and brain.

At the beginning, however, there may be no symptoms and the disease remains undetected for years. It is therefore worth having regular body checks carried out by your family doctor. If the high blood pressure becomes symptomatic, it can manifest itself as follows in the initial stages: dizziness, headache especially in the morning, ringing in the ears, fatigueSleep disorders, nosebleeds, a red head, reddened veins, nervousness, Nausea. The sleep disorders often result from the headache that wakes them up. As a rule, blood pressure should even drop at night. People who do not have normal blood pressure drop at night will also be affected non-dipper called.

In the subsequent stages, in which organ damage has already occurred, the following symptoms can be observed: Shortness of breath, Visual disturbances, Chest pain, Chest tightness. More massive vascular damage can also lead to chest pain, which can occur as a result of a heart attack, and severe vascular damage can also trigger strokes in the brain. In the case of severe kidney damage due to chronic high blood pressure, it can also Water retention come in the eyelid and in the feet and lower legs

For some people, symptoms of high blood pressure get worse during the winter months.

With very high blood pressure over 230 mmHg systolic, which becomes symptomatic, a so-called hypertensive emergency . This occurs when there is chronic organ damage in addition to the high blood pressure peaks. Extreme chest pain caused by a heart attack or Aortic dissection (Bleeding between the vessel walls of the main artery due to severe vascular damage), Symptoms of paralysis, impaired consciousness and dizziness through Strokes or cerebral haemorrhage, shortness of breath due to pulmonary edema (water retention in the lungs) Bleeding in the retina (Retina) of the eye. In the event of a hypertensive emergency, action must be taken immediately. Call an ambulance immediately. Different drugs are used depending on the symptoms. Possible drugs are nitroglycerin, urapidil, Calcium antagonists or clonidine.

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Very high blood pressure over 230 mmHg can also occur with no symptoms. One speaks of one hypertensive crisis. Here, too, you should try to lower your blood pressure, but the risk is not as acute as in a hypertensive emergency.

Risks of high blood pressure

The risks of high blood pressure lie next to the symptoms in the early stages, which can impair the quality of life, especially in the chronic long-term effects. Often also lie Comorbidities, i.e. several chronic diseases together, which can influence each other. Diabetes (diabetes), Obesity, increased fat levels (Hypercholesterolemia, hyperdyslipidemia) play a major role in terms of the risk of developing high blood pressure.


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