Synonyms in a broader sense

Cold, flu, cough, runny nose
med .: Hyperthermia
English: fever

definition

Fever is an elevated body temperature that deviates from normal values, which is usually a sign of infection, inflammation or other immunological reactions in the body.

introduction

Fever is defined as an increase in body temperature above 38 ° C. In most cases, fever occurs as an accompanying symptom in inflammatory processes, infections or injuries. The body tries to fight germs that can cause disease, such as viruses, fungi or bacteria, that penetrate from the outside.
The body's own defense system is activated and specific substances that increase body temperature are formed. In addition to a general feeling of illness with headache, tiredness or sensitivity to light, fever can also be accompanied by other symptoms, depending on the stage and temperature.
These include increased sweating, pale skin, increased breathing, rapid heartbeat, nausea and an increased feeling of thirst. Inner restlessness and a newly emerging confusion can also be side effects of a high fever.

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frequency

Fever in itself is not a disease, but rather a symptom that can result from various clinical pictures. Similar to back pain, headache and abdominal pain, a very common reason for seeing a doctor is fever. The likelihood of fever tends to decrease with age. While newborns usually do not have a fever, toddlers, children and adolescents are relatively more likely to develop diseases accompanied by fever. In adulthood, only relatively severe infections usually lead to a fever.

How do I know if I have a fever?

Before a fever develops, most people suffer from typical symptoms such as tiredness, deterioration in their general condition, and headache and body aches. However, these symptoms are not decisive for whether a fever occurs at all or how high it will be. Affected people can feel very weak and ill even without a fever. However, the level of the fever can affect the severity of the symptoms, making a person with a high fever feel more ill. Other symptoms that typically herald a fever are, for example, sweating, extreme thirst, chills, dry and hot skin, glassy eyes, loss of appetite, increased breathing rate, restlessness and clouded consciousness.

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Symptoms

After infection or the triggering event, it occurs within a few days (incubation period) to general malaise, tiredness, loss of performance but also runny nose, cough and headache. The so-called chills usually begin either parallel to this or shortly afterwards.
Despite the warm ambient temperature, this means subjectively perceived freezing and shivering, accompanied by tremors. The tremor causes the muscles of the body to move in rapid succession. These quick movements create the warmth necessary for the fever. Most of the time, the chills described above only occur in the initial phase. Once the body is heated up, the body's energy is sufficient to maintain the temperature. With fever, the general condition usually worsens and the initial symptoms become stronger. A high fever can cause severe to very severe headaches with nausea and vomiting. Some patients with a very high fever begin to fantasize and are no longer adequately responsive.

The fever is often accompanied by profuse sweating, through which the body tries to regulate the derailed temperature again. Most patients with a high fever find it difficult to get up, resulting in epoch-making bed restraint.

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Read more on the topic: Fever and headache

Body aches

Body aches are a typical harbinger of a cold. The fever usually occurs a few hours to days after the pain in the limbs. In addition, there are usually other cold symptoms such as headache, sore throat, runny nose and many more. However, if the pain in the limbs and the fever are not related to an infection, an autoimmune disease such as polymyalgia rheumatica can also be the cause. In this specific example, it is an inflammation of medium-sized and large vessels, whereby the pain can be felt mainly in both shoulders. It is important to recognize the condition as treatment with cortisone is necessary.

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Further information can be found at:

  • Body aches
  • Fever with aching limbs

Fever with abdominal pain

On the one hand, fever and abdominal pain can have an infectious background. Viruses are often the cause, and less often bacteria. On the other hand, appendicitis can also cause abdominal pain and fever. It is typical that the abdominal pain begins diffusely around the navel and then moves over time to the right lower abdomen. Another possible cause is the so-called familial Mediterranean fever. This is an inherited fever that causes bouts of fever and is typically associated with abdominal pain. The fever attacks usually begin before the age of 20. Familial Mediterranean fever is often confused with appendicitis due to the similar symptoms.

Read more on the subject at: Abdominal pain and fever and familial Mediterranean fever

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Fever with a sore throat

Fever usually shows that the immune system is working. A sore throat is a typical symptom of a viral or bacterial infection, which is also often associated with a fever. Those affected should pay attention if drugs that suppress the immune system (so-called cytostatics or immunosuppressants) are taken. If a sore throat and fever then occurs, the blood cells must be checked and inpatient treatment may be unavoidable.

For more information, see: Fever and sore throat

Fever with back pain

Back pain can also occur as part of a cold. If there are no other cold symptoms and if the back pain and fever persist over a longer period of time or if they keep coming back, other diseases should be considered. On the one hand, Bechterew's disease comes into question. This is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the spine, which can lead to a stiffening of the spine. Bechterew's disease can be associated with fever and back pain, especially if it occurs late and for the first time. Furthermore, prostate cancer can be excluded in men over 70 years of age with a fever in connection with weight loss and / or night sweats and back pain.

Read more about the topic here: Fever and back pain.

Fever and headache

The combination of fever and headache represents a typical constellation of symptoms in colds. In addition, there are usually other symptoms such as sore throat, runny nose, cough or diarrhea. However, headaches can also be a warning sign of a cold. If the headache is very severe, the fever rises and if the neck becomes stiff, meningitis should be considered.
In addition, clouding of consciousness, sensitivity to noise and light, nausea, vomiting or even seizures can occur. If meningitis is suspected, this should definitely be clarified, as the inflammation can spread to the brain and lead to serious consequential damage and even death. Meningitis can be triggered by bacteria or viruses. If the infection is bacterial, it must be treated with antibiotics as soon as possible.

For more information, see: Fever and headache

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Fever and diarrhea

If a fever occurs in connection with diarrhea, an infectious cause can be assumed. The infectious diarrhea can be triggered by viruses, bacteria and rarely parasites. In addition, there are often nausea, vomiting, fatigue and chills. The diarrhea is mushy to watery and occurs several times a day. In addition, severe abdominal cramps can occur. Above all, however, caution is required if the diarrhea persists for several days and fluid intake is restricted due to additional nausea.

If there is blood and / or mucus in the stool, a consultation with a doctor is required. If the diarrhea occurs after a trip abroad, a doctor should also be consulted. For example, after trips to the subtropics and the tropics, a possible malaria infection should always be considered. This leads to attacks of fever after 7 to 42 days after infection, which can be accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Since there can be a long period of time between the infection and the appearance of the first symptoms, those affected should consider traveling abroad more than a month ago.

Read more on the topic: Fever and diarrhea

Fever with rash

Fever and rash are common in so-called childhood diseases. These include measles, rubella, rubella, scarlet fever and three-day fever (erythema subitum). With the exception of bacterial scarlet fever, these diseases are caused by various viruses. All diseases are accompanied by a typical rash and fever. Usually the fever can be observed before the rash, but it can flare up again with the rash. In addition, other cold symptoms such as runny nose, cough, sore throat and fatigue can occur.Measles, for example, presents with a deep red, spotty, nodular rash that begins on the face and behind the ears and then spreads over the body.

Rubella is similar to measles in terms of its spread, but is rather bright red and with smaller spots. Scarlet fever shows up pale red at first, spreads across the body, and then turns scarlet. The region around the mouth is left out, which is also known as perioral pallor. The rubella initially presents with a rash that is limited to the cheeks (slapping rash). The rash then spreads like a web on the arms and trunk. Three-day fever, on the other hand, presents itself as a pale red, fine-spotted exanthem on the trunk or in the neck, which in some cases only lasts for a few hours, but has subsided after three days at the latest. Except for scarlet fever, which is treated with antibiotics, the diseases are treated purely symptomatically.

Find out more about the topic: Fever with rash

Fever without symptoms- what's behind it?

If there is a fever without further symptoms without a possible cause for the fever being found, one also speaks of a fever of unknown origin. Usually, a fever occurs when the immune system is working harder. Therefore, this can also be the case in very stressful phases in life and does not necessarily have to be based on a malicious cause. However, if the fever occurs over a longer period of time and repeatedly, a doctor should definitely be examined. Even if there are no symptoms, viral or bacterial infections must always be considered as triggers.

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In addition, the presence of an autoimmune disease or even malignant tumor diseases must be ruled out. Cancer should be searched for, especially if there is accidental and severe weight loss and night sweats. In addition, the HIV status must always be checked. In some cases, no trigger for the fever can be found. If the fever lasts for more than six months or keeps coming back without any symptoms or a cause - despite regular checkups - being found, the prognosis is generally good.

Read more at: Fever with no further symptoms in adults - what's behind it?

Measure body temperature

To speak of a fever, it is very important to determine the temperature as part of a measurement process.

In many cases, the determination of the body temperature is somewhat imprecise, as it depends on the one hand on the measurement method and on the other hand also on fluctuations in the course of the day or physical activity and is influenced. Nowadays are used to measure digital clinical thermometer used.
On the one hand, these have the advantage that the pure measuring process to determine the values ​​only takes about a minute, in the ear it only takes a few seconds. On the other hand, they are very stable and do not break easily.
The glass thermometers that have been used for a long time can break quickly due to their high fragility and possibly cause injuries to the patient. The preferred places to measure are in ear (auricular), under the tongue (sublingual), in the Axel cave (axillary) and in Po (rectal).

The rectal measurement is done by inserting a thermometer into the buttocks and is the most uncomfortable method for many patients. However, this method can provide the most accurate and representative measured values. It most closely matches the exact body temperature and is therefore also very suitable for a control measurement. If the temperature is not measured in the bottom, it should be noted that the measured values ​​can usually differ from other measurement locations.
If the temperature is measured in the mouth area, the thermometer should be placed under the tongue. It should be ensured that the mouth should remain closed for the duration of the measurement if possible. You should also make sure that no cold food or liquid was consumed shortly before the measurement, as these are disruptive factors that influence the measurement and can affect the measured values.

A difference of approx. 0.3 ° C should be observed when measuring the temperature in the mouth.

Another method for determining body temperature is to measure it in the ear. This is an often used method because it can be carried out very quickly and is well tolerated by patients, especially children. The introduction of the probe into the external auditory canal is made easier by a slight pull on the auricle. If there is inflammation in one ear, the healthy ear should be used for measurement if possible.

The method that provides the most inaccurate measured values ​​is to measure the temperature in the axel cavity.
It is particularly important to note that there may be a difference of 0.5 ° C to the temperature determination in the bottom. If you keep this possible deviation in mind, the risk of underestimating body temperature can be avoided.

Also read: Measure a fever

Lowering the fever

Since many steps in the immune system to fight the pathogens run faster with increased body temperature, one should not always try to lower the fever immediately.

However, if those affected are very weak and have other accompanying symptoms, one should resort to known antipyretic agents. The most effective way of lowering the fever is to find the underlying focus and adapt the therapy accordingly.
In the case of bacterial diseases, you therefore choose a suitable antibiotic that kills the responsible germ. This causes the temperature to drop again. It is also possible to administer antipyretic drugs in the form of tablets, juices or suppositories.

The active ingredient paracetamol in particular is found in many preparations, but ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid also have an antipyretic effect. Some well-known home remedies are also suitable for effectively and independently lowering elevated temperatures.
A sufficient supply of fluids is particularly important. The fever causes the skin to sweat more, causing the body to lose fluids and minerals. A well-known and proven home remedy are leg wraps. Wrap cloths that have previously been soaked in 30 ° C warm water around the calves and then cover them again with two or three layers of dry cloths. The heat that is produced by the body is released to the outside via the wraps. A cold washcloth on the forehead is also used for cooling.

Teas mixed with elderflower also have an antipyretic effect and lead to increased sweating. It is also important to keep bed rest when you have a fever so that you give your body enough time to fight the pathogens.

Read more on the topic: Lower fever such as Home remedies for a fever

The fever doesn't go down despite antibiotics-what should you do?

If a fever develops due to a bacterial infection, antibiotic therapy is often necessary. If the fever doesn't go down immediately, that's not too worrying. However, if this is still the case after 48 hours or if the fever has even worsened and the accompanying symptoms have remained unchanged, it can be assumed that the antibiotic is not working. Since not every antibiotic is effective against every bacterium, you should visit your doctor again so that the treatment can be switched to a different antibiotic.
In addition, a smear and a culture of the bacterium should be carried out. The bacterium can be determined and a so-called antibiogram can be made at the same time. An antibiogram tests which antibiotics work against the bacterium and which don't. It should also be borne in mind that infections can also be triggered by viruses, parasites or fungi, on which antibiotics also have no effect. Therefore, antibiotic therapy would not reduce the fever in these pathogens anyway.

Which home remedies help against a fever?

Various home remedies can be used for the fever. It should be noted, however, that the fever is a sign that the immune system is working. Therefore, it should not be lowered too soon. On the one hand, cold leg compresses can be applied to lower the fever. It should be noted, however, that this does not take place with chills or cold hands or feet. In addition, hands and feet should be kept warm during and after the wrap. The calf wrap is applied for half an hour.

As an alternative to the calf wrap, wet stockings can be put on. For this, wool socks are dipped in lukewarm water, wrung out and then pulled over the calves if possible. Dry, warm socks are pulled over the stockings. After about 45 minutes, the stockings are taken off, the feet are dried and then kept warm. A damp, warm rag on the forehead can also reduce the fever. Drinking basil tea can also reduce fever. Drinking cherry juice can also lower a fever. Many other home remedies exist to help lower body temperature. However, if the fever persists or gets worse, medical advice should be sought as drug treatment may be necessary.

Read more on the topic: Home remedies for a fever

Calf wrap

A calf wrap is a home remedy that can be used for fever. The correct application of a calf wrap is very important so that the fever is also reduced. For a calf wrap you need three towels for each leg. The first cloth is dipped in lukewarm water, wrung out and placed directly on the skin. The cloth should no longer drip. A dry cotton cloth is placed on top, which is used to absorb excess liquid. The third towel, made of terrycloth or wool, is wrapped around the other two towels and the leg. It is important to ensure that the wrap is tight. After half an hour the wrap is removed again. The calf wrap is not to be used with chills or cold hands and feet.

Fever in baby

In small infants, extra care must be taken when a fever occurs.

On the one hand, infants cannot use language to indicate that they are not doing well and, on the other hand, the body's own immune system is not yet sufficiently developed or strengthened, so that even minor infections can develop a fever. Infants with a fever are particularly noticeable because they appear very restless or, on the other hand, apathetic.

In addition, in most cases they scream a lot and sweat profusely. A refusal to eat is particularly common Breastfeeding or when giving the bottle.
For infants who are not yet three months old, parents should consult the pediatrician responsible for children who have a body temperature of 38 ° C or more, since infants have minor infections as well as serious illnesses, for example Meningitis or Newborn infectionsrepresent possible causes. In the case of a fever, sufficient fluid intake is particularly important in order to maintain the body's water balance and dehydration, the so-called Dehydration, to prevent.
Therefore, in the event of insufficient fluid intake, it may be necessary to supply fluid via the vein as prescribed by the doctor.

In the case of febrile infants, you should make sure that they are not covered or dressed too warmly, as the excess heat cannot be given off through thick clothing. In order to reduce fever with medication, it is important to ensure that only suppositories are used in babies and that the correct dosage is used. The preparation that is used in most cases is Paracetamol. The gift of ASS is prohibited in infants and young children, as a possible complication is a serious illness of liver and brain can occur.

Fever when teething

Babies start teething around the sixth month. This process can be accompanied by whining, crying, screaming, increased chewing urge and salivation as well as pain. However, the fever is not directly related to the eruption of the teeth. Since the nest protection (i.e. the mother's antibodies in the child's blood) decreases between the fourth and sixth month, the baby's immune system has to work alone against pathogens for the first time.
Since babies often have an increased urge to chew during teething, different objects are put into their mouths that may be contaminated with pathogens. This can cause an infection, causing the baby to develop a fever. Therefore, attention should always be paid to how the baby behaves if it develops a fever while teething, as treatment for an infection may be necessary.

Read more on the topic: Fever when teething

Fever in the toddler

Babies and Toddlers get a fever much more often than adults.

In the case of minor infections, the body can react by increasing the temperature. Fever is a symptom, not a disease. First of all, the increase in temperature is a natural protective mechanism of the body's own defense system.
In this way, the body tries to take action against the inflammatory pathogen when an infection is beginning. Lots bacteria and Viruses can no longer multiply and spread as quickly at an increased body temperature as at normal temperatures.

In babies, the normal body temperature is between 36.5 and 37.5 ° C. For values ​​between 37.5 and 38.5 ° C, doctors speak of elevated temperatures (subfebrile). Only from a body temperature of 38.5 ° C one speaks of fever. If a very high fever occurs, over 39 ° C, important body functions are strongly influenced and the body is exposed to great stress.
In babies, you can often tell by their behavior and appearance whether the baby has a fever. Most of the time, the baby falls due to excess sweat and a flushed face on. The eyes appear tired, can be a little cloudy and the skin looks cool and pale overall. In addition, the babies can on the one hand appear very exhausted and drowsy, or on the other hand they can also become very restless and tearful.

Parents should definitely see their baby to a pediatrician if the baby refuses to eat more than two meals skin rash arises, the baby vomits several times or diarrhea gets, a change in consciousness is noticeable, a body temperature of 39 ° C is reached and antipyretic agents such as suppositories or juices do not relieve the symptoms. In babies and toddlers one should avoid that to lower fever Acetylsalicylic acid (ASS) as it can cause serious complications in babies and young children. There are several causes for a fever to develop in babies. The most common include ear infections, to cough and Sore throat in the context of an infection of the respiratory tract or slight infections of the stomach - and Intestinal tract.

In a few cases there is a serious illness, such as one Inflammation of the meninges, severe disorders of the body's metabolism, defects in the body's immune system or even a Blood poisoning behind. Above all, it is important to ensure that the baby continues to drink enough. During a fever, babies in particular are at great risk of losing fluids because they have a large body surface and can lose a lot of fluid through this in the form of sweating.

Fever in the child

A fever in a child is much more common than in an adult. In most cases, fever occurs as part of mild infections. These very often include otitis media, recurring inflammation of the airways or gastrointestinal infections.

Small children in particular are particularly susceptible because they come into contact with many pathogenic germs in day care centers or kindergartens. For the time being, a rise in temperature is not necessarily a cause for concern, as it is a natural protective mechanism of the body to ward off invading pathogens.
However, you should watch the process closely.If the temperature rises despite the administration of antipyretic agents, a pediatrician should be consulted immediately. A possible complication of a high rise in fever in infancy is febrile seizure. The fever leads to seizures in which the children stiffen up or overstretch their heads, muscle twitching can occur, the children cannot be addressed and after the attack they become exhausted and tired.
These attacks usually do not last longer than 15 minutes and usually do not lead to any serious consequential damage. They often appear between the ages of 6 months and 6 years.

Read more about the topics: Fever in the toddler and daycare center or childminder - which form of care is the right one for my child?

Fever during pregnancy

Even during pregnancy, a mild fever is a natural defense reaction of the body and should not be a cause for concern. In most cases it is a harmless infection with pathogens, with symptoms of a cold often also being added. However, if the fever rises sharply or if there is severe abdominal pain or vaginal fluid leakage, a doctor should be consulted urgently. These can be various infections in the abdomen that can provoke premature rupture of the bladder and premature birth and require urgent treatment. It should also be noted that the fever should be reduced during pregnancy from 38 ° C. Home remedies can be used for this, but also drugs such as paracetamol. You should still consult your doctor before lowering your fever.

Read more on the topic: Fever during pregnancy

Can I breastfeed with a fever?

Even after the birth there are typical infectious diseases that can trigger a fever, but colds with a sore throat and runny nose or even bronchitis are no reason to stop breastfeeding. If you are afraid that breastfeeding would infect the baby, you should bear in mind that symptoms of the disease usually only appear days later after the infection and that the baby has probably already come into contact with the pathogen anyway. In addition, the baby receives antibodies and defense substances through breast milk, which provide additional protection.
Furthermore, there is a risk that sudden weaning will promote breast inflammation due to blocked milk ducts and lead to additional inflammation and weakening of the mother. However, if the mother's physical condition does not allow breastfeeding, it should be interrupted. If antibiotic therapy becomes unavoidable, weaning is not necessary when taking certain antibiotics such as penicillin or erythromycin, as these do not have a harmful effect on the baby. However, if other antibiotics have to be used, breastfeeding must be interrupted.

Read more on the subject at: Can I breastfeed if I have a fever?

Fever after vaccination

In the context of a vaccination, fever is described as a possible side effect of the vaccine. Vaccinations are carried out by the pediatrician or family doctor and, like the U - examinations, belong to precautionary measures. Vaccinations ensure children are adequately protected against serious infections and prevent the outbreak and spread of dangerous, contagious diseases.

About two to three days after vaccination, a side effect may be an increase in body temperature. This is due to the fact that the body's own defense system recognizes the introduced vaccine as foreign and takes action against it by increasing the temperature as a natural protective function.
If these are mild febrile reactions, these occur without any additional symptoms and must be related to the previous dose of vaccination.
If the temperature does not rise above 38 ° C and it drops after a period of about 24 hours, you should not worry. If the fever does not go down, however, or if temperatures of over 39 ° are reached, a doctor should be consulted as a precaution. In the case of a vaccination, small children may develop a febrile seizure.

Read more on the topic: Fever in adults after vaccination

Fever of unknown origin (FUO)

In addition to numerous bacterial and viral pathogens, the symptom of fever of unknown origin is a special form. No pathogen or cause can be identified here. In 75% of patients who Cytostatics (Chemotherapy) and their immune system was downregulated, get a FUO. At 50%, no pathogen is detectable that has caused this temperature rise. Until the opposite has been proven, one must assume an infection. Mostly are Staphylococci, Streptococci or gram negative bacteria causative pathogens.
The gram-negative pathogens include Pseudomonas aeroginosa, E. Coli, Klebsielle i.a.
In the case of fever of unknown origin, a distinction is made between courses with reduced neutrophil granulocytes (Neutropenia, e.g. in the mentioned immunocompromised patients) of courses in patients with an intact immune system. Patients without neutropenia who get an unexplained fever are mostly sick with an inflammation of the inner wall of the heart (endocarditis), tuberculosis or an HIV infection. One speaks of a nosocomial FUO when an increase in fever is recorded during a hospital stay without any suspicion of an infection at the time of admission to the hospital. The cause in this case could be a urinary tract infection or an infected venous catheter.
In this case, appropriate measures should be taken (urine examination and removal of long-lying brown ulcers). The pathogen cannot be found in about 25% of fevers of unknown origin.

Read more about the topic at: Fever with no other symptoms in the adult

Fever for no reason

If a fever occurs although it has already been diagnosed that there is no organic cause, a psychologically induced fever should be considered. For example, the fever can be triggered by emotional stress. It should also be noted, however, that in the first six months after the first occurrence of the fever, a diagnostic check should continue to determine whether a cause for the fever can still be found. In general, however, it can be assumed that a fever lasting more than six months without an established cause should not be based on a malignant disease.

Fever after an operation

Postoperative fever, also known as postoperative fever, occurs between the day of surgery and the tenth day after surgery. The body temperature rises above 38 ° C. In most cases, an infection triggers the fever after surgery. Triggers are often infected venous access, urinary tract infections, wound infections or respiratory infections. The most common infections are caused by bacteria such as E. coli or staphylococci. In addition to the fever and depending on the place of infection, other symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath or pain, for example when urinating, may occur. It is important that the site of infection is localized so that therapy can be initiated. It is important that the trigger, for example an infected urethral catheter, is removed. In addition, antibiotic therapy should always be carried out.

Read more on the topic: Fever after an operation

Fever of psychogenic origin

In some cases, especially with long periods of fever, there is no infection. It can happen that patients increase their own basal metabolic rate as a result of constant stress so that a general subfebrile body temperature occurs. In this case, one should recommend the patient to change their life situation through stress-reducing and nerve-calming measures.

In very rare cases a fever is even faked by the patient. The basis can be the receipt of a certificate of incapacity for work or early retirement. In this case, the patient should be given a temperature curve over a longer period of time. The fever should be measured under the arm, in the mouth and rectally. The three values ​​mostly differ in that the level of the values ​​measured in the mouth lies between the two other values. If this does not apply to the entire fever curve, a fake fever could be behind it.

In extreme cases of Münchhausen's syndrome, patients initially inflict invisible wounds and injuries, sometimes with heavily soiled objects, so that a fever results. For this reason, a complete physical examination with an inspection of the skin etc. should always be carried out, especially in patients with a corresponding psychiatric history.

Read more on the topic: Fever from stress such as Fever causes

Fever from stress

Fever can also be triggered by psychological causes. If stress is the cause, the fever lasts for a longer period of time, but usually does not rise much above 38 ° C. Even if it is suspected that the fever is triggered by stress, serious illnesses must be excluded. In addition to fever, mental stress can also cause other symptoms such as abdominal pain, palpitations, diarrhea, headaches and much more.
When symptoms occur without an organic cause, it is called a somatoform disorder. It is important that those affected are taken seriously and that they are assured of emotional support, if necessary also by a psychotherapist or psychiatrist, because even if there is no organic disease, the physical suffering can be very stressful.

Hereditary illnesses with attacks of fever

There are numerous conditions that are inherited and, while very rare, should definitely be considered if there is no other reason for it fever is evident or if the feverish period lasts unusually long or returns unusually frequently. This is most often found among the rare hereditary diseases familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). It usually occurs after the age of 10, the fever attacks last 1-3 days, the interval between fever attacks is weeks to months.
The disease will autosomal recessive inherited. Furthermore, the disease makes itself through a Monoarthritis, an inflammation of the peritoneum (Peritonitis) and by erysipelas Skin changes (red, mostly well-defined red skin on the body) noticeable. The dangerous systematic disease amyloidosis can develop as a complication of this disease. As therapy, the gift of Colchicine come into question.

Another hereditary but much rarer condition that can cause a fever is that Hyper IgD syndrome (HIDS). It usually affects young children before they are one year old. The fever attacks usually last 3-7 days, the symptom-free interval becomes with 4-8 weeks specified. The HIDS will also autosomal recessive inherited. The little patients show one as findings Enlargement of the lymph nodes, one Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes (Conjunctivitis), Inflammation of the joints (Polyarthritis), Abdominal pain and skin changes. There is no known therapy.

The familial cold urticaria (FCU) usually occurs before the first year of life. The fever lasting from days to weeks is triggered exclusively by contact with cold. In addition to the wheal-shaped skin symptoms, inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes can also occur (Conjunctivitis). Painful inflammation of the joints and amyloidosis as a complication could also be observed. The disease will autosomal dominance ebbs away. A therapy attempt with Kineret can also be undertaken for this disease.

As Fever-inducing The cause can also be cyclic neutropenia (ZN) come into question. It usually occurs before the age of 5, the duration of the fever attacks is usually 4-5 days, the interval was given as 20 days. In addition to the attacks of fever, patients often complain of inflammatory changes in the mouth area (Stomatitis) and skin infections. This disease too will autosomal dominant passed on. As a complication, the Blood poisoning (sepsis) get noticed. The administration of G-CSF attempted to stimulate granulocyte production.

What is a febrile seizure?

A febrile seizure is an epileptic fit that occurs in children who have a febrile illness. The seizure is not caused by a brain infection but by a high fever. Why a febrile seizure occurs has not been sufficiently clarified. It is assumed that the infection or fever lowers the brain's seizure threshold. Most of the time, they are straightforward seizures in which the children lose consciousness and twitch and cramp all over their bodies.

However, a complicated febrile seizure must be distinguished from the uncomplicated febrile seizure, which does not affect the entire body but only certain parts of the body (focal seizure), lasts longer than 15 minutes, occurs repeatedly within 24 hours, or is less than 6 months old or over 5 Years ago. If it comes to a complicated febrile seizure, this should be further clarified, as this may be an attack that was triggered by meningitis or encephalitis. Typically, febrile seizures end spontaneously within 5 minutes. If this is not the case, drugs such as benzodiazepines should be used to break the spasm. An uncomplicated febrile seizure usually does not have a harmful effect on brain function.

Read more on the subject at: Febrile seizure

What are fever blisters?

Cold sores are also known as cold sores or herpes labialis. These blisters, which are typically around the mouth or on the lips, are caused by the herpes virus. Almost 100% of people are infected with the herpes virus but do not develop symptoms. Up to 40% of people are affected by cold sores once in their life. Since cold sores are a reactivation of the herpes virus, the blisters can reappear.

If the immune system is weakened as a result of stress or an infection, the reactivation of the virus can be promoted. When a cold develops a fever and the immune system is weakened, the fever blisters are associated with the fever and hence their name. The vesicles are filled with a liquid that contains the virus and is therefore highly contagious. In addition, fever blisters are often very painful. Cold sores are treated with creams, gels or ointments. If the course is severe, acyclovir - an anti-virus agent - is applied to the area or given in tablet form.

For more information, see: Fever blisters

What is a fever suppository?

A suppository is a drug dosage form that is introduced into body orifices such as the rectum (rectal) or the vagina (vaginal). A fever suppository is usually inserted into the rectum through the anus. Suppositories are usually made of hard fat and contain antipyretic agents such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. The hard fat then dissolves at body temperature and releases the active ingredients. It is also possible to give water-soluble suppositories. Since there is little fluid in the rectum in which the suppository could dissolve, this suppository shape plays a subordinate role.
Suppositories are a good way of administering medicinal products to children, unconscious people and people with swallowing difficulties. Both ibuprofen and paracetamol are suitable for children, but fever suppositories containing ibuprofen should not be used in babies under 6 months of age. It should also be noted that fever suppositories should only be used in children from temperatures above 39.5 ° C, as fever is an important part of the immune system and actually only means that the immune system is working. However, if the child suffers from the fever more than it is good for, the suppository can be given earlier.This is the case, for example, if the child can no longer sleep or does not drink or eat anything.

This article might also interest you: Fever suppositories for babies and children

What is a fever dream?

A fever dream is a dream that is directly related to a fever phase. An infection releases various messenger substances that drive the body temperature up. These messenger substances - especially interleukin 1 and 6 - cause the fever. Due to the increased body temperature, the blood can flow faster and antibodies can get to the place where they are needed more quickly. It is believed that interleukins 1 and 6 also increase the sleep phases in which the brain is particularly active, the so-called REM sleep phases. In these phases, people generally dream.

If the REM sleep phases increase due to an infection, more intense and increased dreams occur. The fever dream can contain both positive and negative experiences, but above all the fever dream is perceived as subjectively confusing. A more serious case is the so-called fever delirium, in which those affected find themselves in a twilight state. This then leads to fantastic dreams, hallucinations and the mixing of reality and dream. The fever delirium should draw attention, as this usually only occurs at high body temperatures and indicates a rather serious course of the disease.

Further information can be found at: Feverish dream

How do I know if my fever is contagious?

Fever in itself is not contagious. If the fever is triggered by a pathogen, it can be transmitted and trigger symptoms and fever in other people. If the fever is accompanied by a sore throat, headache, runny nose, cough, vomiting or diarrhea, it can be assumed that the disease is contagious. Depending on the pathogen, however, the period in which infection is possible also differs.
If it is not clear whether the fever is caused by an infection, hygiene measures should be observed to prevent it from spreading. For example, you should wash your hands frequently. Changing bed linen and washing worn clothing during the infection should also take place at the latest after healing. In the case of infectious diarrheal diseases, adequate hand hygiene must always be observed.

Read more on the topic: How do I know if my fever is contagious?

When should I see a doctor with a fever?

A visit to the doctor should be made dependent not only on fever, but also on the accompanying circumstances. If the symptoms are severe, it is important to see a doctor, regardless of whether the fever is high or not. However, if the fever rises above 39.5 ° C and cannot be reduced by medication, a doctor should be consulted. Lowered consciousness due to infection is also an urgent reason to seek medical help. Babies and young children should be closely monitored to see how the fever develops.
In babies in particular, signs such as poor drinking and impaired consciousness are signs that a doctor's visit is inevitable. If the fever is unrelated to an infection, persists for a long time and is symptomatic, a doctor should also be consulted, as the underlying cause may be a serious illness. Unintentional, severe weight loss and night sweats in combination with a fever should also make you think of a malignant disease and require an urgent investigation.

Read more on the topic: When should I see a doctor with a fever?

Summary

fever is not a disease, but rather a symptom that can have various causes. Fever is also one of the most common reasons for seeing a doctor or why a doctor has to make a home visit.

The mechanism by which fever develops is very complex. It is believed that im brain i.a. Heat-sensitive nerves lie, which together with the cold-sensitive cells set the body's target temperature.
If there is a distribution of so-called Pyrogens, an imbalance arises between the two nerve cell activities, which leads to a rise in temperature. The pyrogens include all foreign bodies that have entered the body from the outside and thus also pathogens, but also substances formed by the body in the event of inflammation. With malignant Tumor diseases there is a release of the tumor necrosis factor, which leads to an increase in temperature and thus profuse sweating (Night sweats are the main symptom of malignant diseases). The most common external pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Fever can also occur after operations, which is usually caused by pathogens caught in the hospital. The most common sources of infection in hospitalized patients are urinary tract infections from catheters and cannulas that have been in the veins for too long.

But also pathogens caught in the hospital lung infection (pneumonia) can a fever cause. It is important to initiate an antipyretic measure as quickly as possible in hospital patients. Patients who suspect a seasonal infection and should only come to the family doctor's practice treated if the patient is immunocompromised (Cancer patients, elderly patients), if the febrile infection has lasted longer than 7-10 days, if a particular rhythm of the fever is visible (e.g. Fever bouts etc.) and if the symptoms accompanying the fever are very strong. Most of the time, a fever is generally associated with weakness, exhaustion, headache and nausea or vomiting. If the fever rises in regions around the 40-42 degrees Celsius it happens that patients begin to fantasize. In this case the fever must also be lowered immediately. This happens on the one hand with cold leg compresses, on the other hand with antipyretic medication (e.g. Paracetamol, ASS 100, Ibuprofen).

If the fever has persisted for an unnaturally long time, if the patient has no obvious infections or is in hospital, the exact cause of the fever should be clarified in any case. For this purpose, a blood culture should be carried out 2-3 times a day on two consecutive days to determine the pathogen.
Furthermore, venous catheters or urinary bladder catheters must be changed. The blood count, which should also be examined, should include the leukocytes and the inflammatory protein CRP.
Both values ​​are usually increased in febrile infections. Immunocompromised or hospitalized patients should be given antibiosis as soon as possible after the blood culture has been taken. If you cannot find the pathogen, which is the case in approx. 60% of fevers, a broad spectrum antibiotic should be used. If there is still no defever afterwards, an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs or an X-ray examination of the heart and chest may be necessary. Also, if the fever and weakness are unclear, an inflammation of the inner wall of the heart must be considered (EndocartditisSome hereditary diseases must also be examined and ruled out after the most common causes have been ruled out. Fever can be the expression of a harmless infection (in most cases) or the first sign of serious illness.


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