Medication

There are numerous different drugs among the beta-blockers, all of which have the same mechanism of action with some special features and for this reason are also used for various diseases.

The active ingredients bisoprolol and metoprolol are the best known beta blockers for the treatment of high blood pressure and secondary prophylaxis of myocardial infarction.

  • Bisoprolol is usually taken in a dose of 2.5 mg or 5 mg once a day.
  • Metoprolol is available as mite (47.5 mg) or as Belok zok (95 mg).
  • Nebivolol is used somewhat less often, but is only approved for the treatment of high blood pressure.
  • Propanolol is mainly used to treat high blood pressure or the rapid pulse.
  • Atenolol is a drug that is used primarily in an emergency to treat myocardial infarction or very rapid conduction disorder (tachycardia), and in this case it is injected into the vein.

The second major area of ‚Äč‚Äčapplication for beta-blockers is the reduced production of aqueous humor by the eye in glaucoma. Beta blockers are used as eye drops, which should usually be given 2-3 times into the affected eye.
The most important substances are:

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  • Betaxolol
  • Timolol
  • Carteolol and
  • Pindolol

Although the systemic effect of the beta blocker in eye drop form is reduced, it still exists. Using these eye drops can also lead to a drop in heart rate and blood pressure.

application areas

Main application area of beta blockers is that high blood pressure such as Cardiac arrhythmias.

It is believed that adrenergic messengers, the ones from body sometimes more sometimes less to be distributed on Bind hearts and both the Accelerate heartbeat as well as the Increase blood pressure. Physiologically, these substances are released from the body whenever an increased cardiac output and a stronger heartbeat are required. As a rule these are physical stressthat make such a physiological change necessary. Running and exercising would require more blood from the body in a shorter time.

adrenaline and Norepinephrine so will poured outto find out about the Beta reptors the Heartbeat to increase and the Blood pressure In the case of pathological high blood pressure, this mechanism of action is used and the beta receptors are blocked with a blocker. Even if adrenergic messenger substances are released by the body, they can no longer bind to the receptors and produce the physiological effect of high blood pressure and an increased frequency.

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At the abnormal high blood pressure or at the Cardiac arrhythmias there are two theories as to why beta receptors trigger this clinical picture. On the one hand, it is believed that without certain occasion the Messenger substances released and so develop a physiological effect on the receptors without it being necessary, and it is suspected that in people who suffer from high blood pressure or cardiac arrhythmias Over-sensitive receptor system is and already at smaller amounts of the messenger substance are stimulated.

Beta blockers are not necessarily the first choice for treating high blood pressure, but above all one Combination alternative with other high blood pressure medicines. When used, the active ingredient attaches itself to the receptors and blocks them, the messenger substances can no longer attach and develop their effect. As a result, blood pressure drops and so does the heart rate. Cardiac arrhythmias are rapid transmissions in the heart muscle that are promoted by adrenaline and noradrenaline. If the receptors are blocked, there is also one reduced stimulus transmission and thus to one lower and more regular pulse.

The Aqueous humor production in the eye is also mediated through beta receptors. At the glaucoma it comes to one pathological increase of the aqueous humor in the eye and thereby to a Increase in intraocular pressure. This can lead to optic nerve damage over a long period of time.

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Again, you can see the effect of the Receptor blockade advantage. The moment the substance binds to the receptor, the actual physiological effect of the messenger substances can no longer be triggered. In this case the intraocular pressure drops.

The opposite effect of the beta-blockers is made with Bronchial asthma advantage. Since that Binding of messenger substances to a extension of the Bronchi the use of beta blockers would cause the bronchi to contract. For this reason, Not a beta blocker for asthmatics can be used. Here, stimulants of the receptors are used, which stimulate the receptor in the lungs (and everywhere else in the body). The so-called Betamimetics lead to a on the lungs Bronchodilation (especially used in bronchial asthma) and on the heart to one Increased heart rate (unwanted effect). The use of Beta blockers is at Asthmatics for this reason contraindicated.

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