As the thyroid cancers only become symptomatic late, the findings are often incidental during routine examinations

Under everything Tumor forms belongs to the Thyroid cancer probably the rarest. In general, it can be assumed that approximately one in 30,000 people a year got thyroid cancer. In most cases, those affected are Middle-aged women. The causes for the development of thyroid tumors are so far largely unclear.
For a long time it was assumed that above all a pronounced Iodine deficiency plays a crucial role in the development of cancers thyroid plays. However, this assumption could meanwhile refuted become.

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Although thyroid cancers are comparatively rare, this disorder particularly can treacherous be. The reason for this is the fact that there are different types of thyroid cancer in one advanced stage noticeable symptoms. Because of this, the typical types of thyroid cancer tend to be random as part of a Routine examination diagnosed.

Regardless of the type of tumor, symptoms do not appear until the cancer cells spread to the surrounding tissue. Typical thyroid cancer symptoms include persistent hoarseness caused by paralysis of the vocal cords, difficulty breathing, and difficulty swallowing. In addition, the so-called Horner syndrome can often be observed in patients who have one of the four types of thyroid cancer. This syndrome usually arises from damage to the smallest of nerve tracts.
Affected people have a significant narrowing of the pupil of one eye (Miosis) on. In addition, the affected eyeball clearly enters the eye socket (Enophthalmos) and the upper eyelid begins to hang limply (Ptosis).

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Read more on the subject at:

1. Thyroid cancer signs

2. Ptosis

Depending on the type of cell from which the thyroid cancer originates, four types must be distinguished. The four types of thyroid cancer differ mainly in terms of the most appropriate treatment. The prognosis for thyroid cancer depends largely on the type of tumor.


Although there are a variety of rare thyroid cancers, most tumors can be found in one of the gland four classic types assign. These classic types of Thyroid tumor differ mainly in terms of the most suitable Treatment strategy. In addition, the exact type of tumor plays a crucial role in terms of the forecast.

The four most common types of thyroid cancer are:

  • papillary thyroid carcinoma

  • follicular thyroid carcinoma

  • medullary thyroid carcinoma

  • anaplastic (undifferentiated) Thyroid cancer

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

The so-called papillary thyroid carcinoma represents with approximately 60 percent the Most common of the four types of Thyroid cancer The papillary form of thyroid cancer occurs significantly more common in women than with men.
Typical of this species is the fact that the tumor cells are primarily located via the Lymphatic system spread in the body (lymphogenic metastasis). For this reason it mainly occurs in the field of Cervical lymph nodes to spread of cancer cells.

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Papillary thyroid cancer generally has one very good prognosis. Although it's a vicious one tumor with adequate treatment can approximately 80 percent of the affected patients cured become. Due to the fact that the symptoms of this of the four thyroid cancers appear very late, the tumor becomes common random diagnosed.

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Follicular thyroid cancer

In follicular thyroid cancer, cancer cells are distributed in the body through the bloodstream

With approximately 30 percent represents the so-called follicular thyroid carcinoma the zmost common of the four types of thyroid cancer. In this form, too, it can be observed that mostly women are affected. Both papillary and follicular thyroid tumors occur male sex extremely rarely on.

In contrast to papillary thyroid cancer, the tumor cells in the follicular form predominantly spread over the blood out (so-called hematogenous metastasis). Because of this, find themselves Daughter ulcers (Metastases) particularly common in the lung or that brain.
Even with adequate treatment, the forecast this type of thyroid cancer a little worse. The so-called ten-year survival rate (How many of the sick are still alive after ten years?) in follicular thyroid cancer is around 60 to 70 percent. Read more about this under Life expectancy in thyroid cancer.

Please also read: Metastases in thyroid cancer

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In both follicular and papillary thyroid cancer, it is assumed that ionizing rays (for example x-rays) play a crucial role in their creation. For this reason, a particularly large number of cases can be found in the vicinity of areas with previous nuclear reactor accidents (for example in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia) observe. In addition, the radiotherapy in other types of cancer is an important risk factor for the development of these of the four thyroid cancers.

Medullary thyroid cancer

The so-called medullary thyroid cancer (Synonym: C-cell carcinoma) forms Not from the actual thyroid cells. Rather, it consists of the four types of thyroid cancer altered C cells.
In healthy tissue, the C-cell associations are important for the production of something Hormone, the Calcitonin, responsible. Besides other messenger substances, calcitonin plays a decisive role in the regulation of the Calcium and phosphate balance. It is the natural adversary (antagonist) of the Parathyroid glands synthesized Parathyroid hormone.
While the parathyroid hormone at the Increase in calcium levels is involved, the main function of calcitonin is Inhibits the release of bound calcium.

Typical of medullary thyroid carcinoma is one induced by changes in the C cells Overproduction of calcitonin. As a result, bone-degrading cells, so-called Osteoclasts inhibited, released less calcium and the Reduced blood calcium levels. For this reason, affected patients often suffer from pronounced sensory disturbances.
In addition, these of the four thyroid cancers are often severe Diarrhea on. However, these diarrhea is less caused by the falling calcium level than by various ones substances produced by the tumor evoked.

In contrast to the much more common types of thyroid cancer (follicular and papillary thyroid cancer) are in this form Men and women equally affected. The survival rate for medullary thyroid cancer is approximately 50 to 70 percent.

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma provides the Rarest of the four types of thyroid cancer. In contrast to the other tumor variants that can occur in the gland, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is characterized by enormously rapid growth out. For this reason, the forecast in this of the four types of thyroid cancer as particularly bad.
In general it can be assumed that the affected patient only remains after the diagnosis about six months Life. women and men are of the four thyroid cancer species equally often affected. Both the causes and possible risk factors for the development of anaplastic thyroid cancer are previously unknown.

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