Warm-up training, warm-up program, warming up, warming up muscles, stretching, stretching, running in, warming up, etc.

English: warming, warm-up


Warming up has become an integral part of modern training. Often the warm-up is equated with stretching exercises, but these are only part of the warm-up. A targeted warm-up is about increasing the body temperature to approx. 38-38.5 ° C.

There are essentially four functions assigned to warming up.

  • First and foremost, the organic performance or willingness to perform is increased.
  • The warm-up leads to an increase in mental performance.
  • The coordinative skills are improved.
  • Finally, the heating is used to prevent injuries.

It will be in general and special A distinction is made between warming up, which are described in more detail below.

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What is warm up?

Warming up means, colloquially, an activation of the muscles that should be used during the subsequent exercise. Since the body does not only consist of muscles, but also tendons and ligaments are an important part of the human musculoskeletal system, these too are prepared for the upcoming stress by brief stretching and movement.

The warm-up can be done by stretching muscles and ligaments or better by additional moderate loads.

What is a warm-up training?

Warm-up training can be designed flexibly and aims to activate the muscle groups that are important for the upcoming sport. The warm-up training usually consists of a moderate load and can, but does not have to, contain stretching components.
The exercises of the warm-up training can be kept simple, such as simple warm-up or cycling with moderate exertion or from more complex exercises with regard to the subsequent activity. For example, passing balls and then running afterwards - which is possible in potentially every imaginable sport.

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The aim of the warm-up training is, as with warm-up in general, to reduce injuries and to achieve the best possible muscle activation during the period of heavy stress after the warm-up training.

Read more about this under: Stretching

How warm-up programs work

Warming up or increasing the body temperature leads to a reduction in the internal frictional forces of the organs and muscles. This enables higher contraction speeds.
In addition, warming up increases the speed of the conduction of stimuli in the nerve cells and sensitizes the sensory receptors in order to be able to process stimuli better and faster.

Different warm-up methods

General warming up aims at total warming up of the organism by activating large muscle groups. This form of warming includes easy running.

The specific / special warm-up integrates the coordinative performance and thus has a sport-specific effect. Varied running (Hopping, side-stepping, knee-lever running, heels, ankle work, etc.) and sport-specific movement sequences are included in the warm-up.In addition, individual skills or deficits can and should be taken into account in a warm-up program.

A distinction is also made between active and passive measures. Active measures include easy running, stretching exercises, etc. Passive measures include warm showers, mobilizing the muscles through sports massages, etc.

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How long should you warm up?

The question of the duration of a warm-up program is also individual and sport-specific. Sports with fast movement sequences require more effort than slower movement sequences.

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The same applies to the coordination scope. Younger athletes have the advantage that the entire musculoskeletal system reaches operating temperature faster than older athletes. Therefore, a warm-up of approx. 5 minutes is sufficient for children and adolescents, whereas older people need between 10 and 20 minutes. The scope of the warm-up program also increases as the level of performance increases.

It should also be noted that the duration of the warm-up program should depend on the time of day and the outside temperature. Early in the morning and at colder temperatures, the human organism needs more time to reach the desired operating temperature.

Why should you warm up before exercising?

  • Warming up is primarily important to prevent various injuries. Unwarmed muscles are prone to torn muscle fibers and other injuries when subjected to excessive stress. In a Norwegian study it was shown that players who had warmed up suffered half as many injuries as those who had not warmed up.
  • The warm-up training gives the body, i.e. both the muscles and the psyche, to prepare for the coming stress. The muscles are prepared for the upcoming load by a relatively weak stimulus.
  • In addition, the warm-up serves to increase the heart rate, which guarantees a better supply of the muscles with oxygen, but also a better removal of metabolic products.
  • Activation of the nervous system plays another important role. Warming up makes it easier for the body to activate additional muscle fibers in order to be able to perform better in the end.
  • Last but not least, an extensive warm-up program protects the joints. The lower exposure leads to increased production of synovial fluid and a strengthening of the articular cartilage. Both factors have a protective effect on joint wear.

What should I watch out for when warming up?

  • The warm-up should always be carried out under sport-specific aspects. This not only warms up the muscles, but also trains the sport-specific motor skills.
  • When training with children, the warm-up should be viewed from a motivational perspective. The warm-up takes place mainly in a game form.
  • In a conventional warm-up program with easy running, care should be taken to use as varied a movement as possible (Hopping run, ankle work etc.).

In physical education

The body needs a certain amount of time to prepare itself for a load from rest and then to perform at full capacity. The cardiovascular system and blood distribution adapt when you warm up, and the resilience of muscles, ligaments and tendons improves.

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When warming up in school in physical education, there are other points to consider in addition to these aspects. Physical education classes are usually not about a competition or high-performance sport. Rather, it is about developing feelings of movement, improving body awareness, getting to know sports and sports games, maintaining health and preventing illness and injury and having fun. Therefore, in class, you usually need a weakened warm-up phase tailored to the lesson goal. Especially with younger students you should note that at the beginning of the lesson there is still an increased urge to move and you should therefore vary your warm-up program according to the respective age group.

The warm-up should always be announced as preparation for the following tasks, so that the students also know why they are doing warm-up program A or why this time it is program C. During the exercises, there should be the opportunity to act out something individually. Compulsive warming up in groups with given options for movement and goals can quickly lead to reduced motivation in students. Self-realization, on the other hand, is always very popular with the students and motivates them to help shape the lessons.

Warm-up games are always more popular at school than stubborn warm-up on the 400m lane. Games like Chain Catching, Black Man or Come With Me, Run Away are known to everyone, as they were played decades ago to warm up at school. According to the teacher's objective, the warm-up program can also consist of a handball header game followed by group exercises with the ball. This is the case when the hourly goal is soccer or handball.

Everyone still knows the federal youth games at school and liked them more or less. For the lessons in which you train athletics in school, you also need a more special warm-up program that consists of shot put with reduced weight, easy jumping in or climbing runs. Such a teaching goal should always precede the general mobilization that is achieved through a game of catch or something similar.

Warm up in various sports

What's the best way to warm up before jogging?

Since more than just the leg muscles are used when jogging, the warm-up program should also target the upper half of the body. Rotational movements of the spine and circles of the head and arms are recommended for the upper body.
For the legs, either a classic stretching program can be used, in which all muscles of the leg are stretched for about six to eight seconds, starting with the muscles of the instep and extending through the ankle.

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A so-called muscle activation is another possibility to adjust the leg muscles to the upcoming load. For example, wide lunge steps with strong pushing back into the starting position or a so-called bear walk can be used.

The stretching exercises are always done after running or the warm-up game.

Read more about this under: Warm up before running

Warm up before swimming

A good pre-swim warm-up includes both part outside and part inside the water.

Starting at the edge of the pool, when the air temperature is usually higher than the water temperature, the body can warm up faster.
With circular movements the arms, shoulders and trunk are loosened and activated. Repeatedly shaking out the legs also activates the leg muscles.

The so-called swim-in then follows in the water. A distance of around 200 meters is covered at a relaxed pace. Particular attention is paid to the correct swimming technique, relaxed breathing and finding the swimming rhythm.

Warming up in football

The warm-up training should be a central part of every football training session. There are thousands of different soccer warm up exercises on the internet.
However, it is important to differentiate according to the age of the players and the associated demands on the warm-up. In the children's area, the warm-up exercises do not necessarily have to be associated with soccer, but should convey the fun of movement.
Only with increasing age is it advisable to incorporate more and more components of the actual game into the warm-up training. Passing exercises, for example, ensure a safe feeling for the ball right at the beginning of training and the connection with small competitions helps to maintain fun and motivation.

Warm up in volleyball

Volleyball is one of the most popular team sports in the world and is played in clubs and in leisure time. With a specific warm-up program, you can protect yourself from injuries and prepare your body for the upcoming stress in order to optimize your performance. A warm-up program of 15 to 20 minutes should be sufficient for a training session of two hours. In volleyball, the warm-up can be divided into three phases, a general warm-up phase, a phase in which muscles and joints are mobilized and a volleyball-specific phase.

The general warm-up is aimed primarily at the cardiovascular system and can begin with a casual run. After a certain amount of time, you can incorporate movements that you need in volleyball, such as circling your arms. In addition, you can switch to a light hopping run and also change the intensity and execution of the running style.

When warming up individual muscles and joints, it is advisable to place emphasis on the shoulders, elbows, knees and hips for the sport of volleyball. But the fingers and the ankle joint on the ankle should also be included. The most common injuries occur in the shoulder or on the fingers.

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For the lower extremities, lunges are ideal, which are completed alternately. This activates and strengthens the muscles of the legs. At the same time, you can clench your fists and spread your fingers directly again so that your hands are warmed up.

Rotational movements in the shoulders are ideal to warm up the upper extremities. A small dumbbell or other weight can be used for this exercise. Then you can lie down on a mat and lie down there on the side. The upper leg is raised and placed on the floor alternately in front of and behind the leg below.

This is followed by the technique-specific warm-up with a direct reference to volleyball. These exercises mainly consist of dropping, hitting, and digging. You can throw the ball against a wall or do this exercise in cooperation with partners. The exercises can be trained individually and in series or in a platform - beating - digging rhythm with one or more partners. Then the classic hitting the net can begin and thus the last exercises before training or competition.

A warm-up can never completely protect against injury, but it can reduce the risk of injury.

Warm up before badminton

In badminton, as in many other sports, the warm-up can be divided into a specific and a general approach.
While the general warm up is about warming up the body as a whole without specifically highlighting specific muscles, the specific approach tries to do just that.

Ideally, you start with unspecific heating in order to then prepare the muscles that are particularly challenged in badminton.
Particular attention should be paid to activating the leg, arm, shoulder and trunk muscles.

Warm up before strength training

Warming up before strength training has several benefits. The cardiovascular system is stimulated and the muscles warm up, which also improves the blood flow to the muscles. Better blood circulation, in turn, ensures a better supply of the muscles with oxygen and nutrients.

The warm-up program before strength training should definitely include a warm-up, which gets the cardiovascular system going. The length of the running-in depends on the individual fitness and running speed. As a rule, you also notice when your body is warmed up and you can stop running. But running in doesn't have to take more than ten minutes.

After warming up, you shouldn't jump straight onto the equipment and start with heavy weights. Rather, warming up should be applied to any strength exercise. Before each exercise, you look at the device and do two or three warm-up sets with very low weights. You feel your way bit by bit to the full scope of the actual training.

Due to the light weights, the body is well prepared for the following load. A maximum of 50 percent of the later training weight should be used when warming up, otherwise the exhaustion before the actual training will be too great.

Warming up in strength training is structured a little differently than, for example, in a team sport. In strength training, the second part of the warm-up always takes place before the actual training exercises, as other muscle groups are always used.

You should also pay attention to what you did before training. If you have just got out of bed, the warm-up phase should take a little longer. If you have already been active or exercised before, the warm-up phase can also be shorter.

In addition, you shouldn't take a break after the warm-up phase and before the actual training. Otherwise the physical condition reached up to that point would decrease again and the warm-up would have been more or less in vain.

Before training you should definitely avoid stretching exercises, which are used in gymnastics or athletics, but stretching exercises are not effective in strength training. You increase mobility, but at the same time reduce the performance of the muscle.

Read more about this topic under: Strength training - tips about training

Example of a warm-up program for game sports

In sports games, short sprints with changing speeds and changes of direction are usually carried out. The warm-up should include these exercise parameters.

Chain catch:
Two or three children hold on to the hand and try hand in hand to catch the remaining children / young people in a play room / half of the hall.
The winner is whoever has not been caught last. Optionally, the chain can be divided for 4, 8 etc. children.

Except for a catcher and a prisoner, all the children are sitting on the floor. The prisoner sits down somewhere next to a child on the floor. This makes the catcher a prisoner and the sitter the new catcher.

Other games:
Depending on the size of the group, 1 or 2 catchers are determined. Every prisoner has to stay in a certain body position until another person frees him through a certain action. If everyone is trapped, it's game over.

For sports in which footwork should be specifically trained, two children can hold onto one hand and have to try to touch the opponent's lower leg with their free hand. There is no limit to the variation.
Sports with throwing and punching movements (Tennis, handball...) should include exercises for the shoulder and core muscles. All kinds of balls can be used.
The same applies to a gymnastics-specific warm-up program.

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